• 2,3 The PI3K-dependent activation of PKB in turn regulates numerous targets involved in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and cell growth, differentiation, and survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also carried out a multifaceted approach to determine potential mechanisms for these effects, first by determining the role of the endogenous angiotensin and endothelin systems in mediating the effects of leptin, in view of the well established vascular hypertrophic effects of these peptides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • [3] It influences the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium (from and into the tubular fluids, respectively) of the kidney , thereby indirectly influencing water retention or loss, blood pressure and blood volume . (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated whether angiotensin III (Ang III) is involved in monocyte recruitment through regulation of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). (kjim.org)
  • The phosphorylation states of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases were measured in Ang III-treated cells to explore the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. (kjim.org)
  • Ang III increased MCP-1 protein production in dose- and time-dependent manners in HK-2 cells, which was inhibited by the AT1 receptor blocker losartan. (kjim.org)
  • Total phosphorylated JNK protein levels tended to increase 20 minutes after stimulation with Ang III. (kjim.org)
  • (kjim.org)
  • 1 Both class 1A and 1B PI3Ks selectively phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) to generate the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P 3 ), 1,2 a lipid second messenger that recruits many signaling proteins to the membrane including the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB) (also named Akt). (ahajournals.org)
  • Attenuation of cuff-induced neointimal formation by overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor-interacting protein 1. (springer.com)
  • Rodrigues-Ferreira S, Nahmias C. An ATIPical family of angiotensin II AT2 receptor-interacting protein. (springer.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests an important role for PI3K-PTEN signaling pathways in the regulation of myocardial growth, contractility, and response to β-adrenergic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bioelectronic Medicine (2018) 4:7 Page 2 of 11 Background stimulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of renal nerves with an Diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease that re- intra-arterial catheter electrode demonstrated increased quires continuous monitoring and medical care to prevent blood pressure, and was considered as a method for locat- the development of severe complications (American Dia- ing suitable renal denervation targets for the treatment of betes Association (ADA) 2018). (deepdyve.com)
  • A Kruskal- Wallis test was performed across all stimulation frequencies (α = 0.05), followed by a post-hoc Wilcoxon rank sum test with Bonferroni correction (α = 0.005). (deepdyve.com)
  • We used the rat portal vein (RPV) cultured for three days to investigate the effect of mechanical stretch on autocrine secretion of leptin and the effect of exogenous leptin (3.1 nM) on VSMC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • [3] It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure , plasma sodium (Na + ), and potassium (K + ) levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that stimulation of renal nerves at kilohertz frequencies, which can block propagation of action potentials, would increase urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conversely, we hypothesized that low frequency stimulation, which has been shown to increase renal nerve activity, would decrease urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate electrical stimulation of renal nerves to modulate urine glucose excretion. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our experimental results show that stimulation of renal nerves may modulate urine glucose excretion, however, this response may be associated with urine flow rate. (deepdyve.com)
  • Renal nerves were stimulated at kilohertz frequencies (1-50 kHz) or low frequencies (2-5 Hz), with intravenous administration of a glucose bolus shortly into the 25-40-min stimulation period. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our time, which makes achieving blood glucose control targets hypothesis was that direct stimulation of renal nerves at difficult for many diabetic patients (Blak et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Less privileged countries simply cannot establish programs for regular renal replacement therapy for all chronic kidney patients because of its prohibitive cost ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In contrast, [Sar 1 ,Ala 8 ]angiotensin II had no effect on maximally stimulated steroidogenesis induced by serotonin and a raised extracellular K + concentration. (biochemj.org)
  • Angiotensin II-induced delayed stimulation of phospholipase C gamma1 requires activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma and tyrosine kinase in vascular myocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These data indicate that activation of both PI3Kgamma and tyrosine kinase is a prerequisite for AII-induced stimulation of PLCgamma1 in vascular smooth muscle and suggest that the sequential activation of the three enzymes may be responsible for the slow and long-lasting contraction induced by AII. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the animal studies, SNS activation is regulated by angiotensin-II-type-1-receptor-(AT 1 R-) induced oxidative stress in the brain [ 18 - 23 ], and recently, we have demonstrated that SNS activation is strongly mediated by AT 1 R-induced oxidative stress in the brain of animal models with MetS [ 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ste20-related kinase SLK phosphorylates ser188 of rhoA to induce vasodilation in response to angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation. (springer.com)
  • The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of ubiquitously expressed enzymes catalyzing the phosphorylation of membrane phosphoinositides at the inositol 3-OH position. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 PI3K actions are antagonized by the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN ( P hosphatase and TEN sin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), which catalyzes conversion of PI(3,4,5)P 3 back to PI(4,5)P 2 . (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings have suggested that angiotensin II may alter permselective properties of the glomerular capillary barrier by mediating contraction of the foot processes, ultimately changing slit-diaphragm architecture and allowing proteins to escape more easily into the urinary space ( 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Metabolic products such as Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang 1 to 7, have been discovered by investigating enzymatic degradation of Ang II in kidney tissues [ 10 ]. (kjim.org)
  • VSMC size and [ 3 H]leucine incorporation rates were significantly increased by leptin in stretched and unstretched tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • AII stimulated an early production of PtdInsP3 (within 30 s) followed by a delayed production of InsPs (within 3-5 min), in contrast to NA which activated only a fast production of InsPs. (semanticscholar.org)