Loading...
  • Adjuvants
  • The oral antigens and adjuvants of the present invention are produced in transgenic plants and then administered through the consumption of the transgenic plant. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention provides the first known functional method for immunizing animals via transgenic plants, where the plants express bacterial antigens that act as both immunogen and adjuvants when the transgenic plant material expressing the antigens is fed to animals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Innate
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, cells involved in innate immunity detect evolutionary conserved microbial sequences that are invariant among a class of pathogens allowing them to initiate an immediate attack without previous pathogen contact (4). (ispub.com)
  • The first exon Tat SF2 1-72 and the minimal transactivator Tat SF2 1-58, all modulated genes to a significantly greater extent than full-length wild type, two-exon Tat, indicating that Tat second exon is critical in reducing the innate response triggered by HIV-1 in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these data indicate that the second exon of Tat is critical to the containment of the innate response stimulated by Tat in antigen presenting cells and support a role for Tat in stimulating cellular transcription via its interaction with transcription factors present at promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lymphoid
  • Surrounding the periarteriolar sheath is the marginal zone which contains B lymphocytes concentrated in lymphoid follicles, either primary 'unstimulated' follicles or secondary 'stimulated' follicles. (brightkite.com)
  • endothelial cells
  • The blood brain barrier (BBB) separates the CNS from systemic circulation with tight junctions between its endothelial cells. (davidson.edu)
  • This was followed in the 1990s by increased interest in the roles that nonsteroidogenic cells, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, pericytes and immune cells, might have in luteal function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identity of the cells comprising these two populations is not known, but it is possible that one population represents the large steroidogenic cells, and the other population is composed of aggregates of luteal endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses
  • Viruses that can target and disorder the function of these cells enjoy a selective advantage. (springer.com)
  • However, UV-inactivated and bromelain-treated viruses were presented efficiently to class II-restricted CD4+ T cells. (rupress.org)
  • While many cell types produce type I IFN in vitro when exposed to double-stranded (ds)RNA and some RNA viruses, a specialized leukocyte is responsible for the IFN-α production induced by a wider spectrum of agents, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, certain cell lines, and also unmethylated CpG-DNA ( 6 - 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • The Vδ1 lineage and the Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg lineage in the expanded populations are less differentiated and show potent antibody-independent cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This demonstration of robust expansion and cytotoxicity of polyclonal γδT cells supports translation of the technology into adoptive transfer clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CTLs
  • These activated specific CTLs recognize, neutralize and destroy, through cell lysis, HER2 expressing cancer cells, including occult cancer cells and micrometastatic foci. (globenewswire.com)
  • Some of these activated CTLs then travel to the infected tissue to form part of the adaptive immune response, while others become memory cells that are ready to mount a rapid response in case of a rechallenge by the pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • In this model, peripheral 2C T cells show a memory rather than a naive phenotype and infiltrate into tissues including the epidermis, despite efficient negative selection in the thymus. (rupress.org)
  • A type of antigen-presenting cell found in many tissues throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Dendritic cells are present in small amounts in the body tissues that frequently come into contact with the external environment. (naturallivingcenter.net)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA sequences both natural and synthetic encoding for the expression of immunogenic agents which are capable of causing an immune response in animals when fed in edible plants, plant tissues, or derived plant materials are constructed, and plants transformed for stable or transient expression in plant cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Abstract
  • J. of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement 18A, Abstract X1-211 "Expression of Candidate Oral Vaccine Antigens in Transgenic Plants", p. 98, Jan. 4-23, (1994). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • blood donors
  • In PRA testing, recipient serum is incubated with white blood cells pooled from a group of blood donors with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types representative of the community. (medscape.com)
  • Expanded cells from adult blood donors were sorted into 3 populations expressing respectively Vδ2 TCR chains (Vδ2 + ), Vδ1 chains (Vδ1 + ), and TCR of other δ chain subtypes (Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • peptide
  • Superantigens differ from conventional antigens in that they bind to the outside of the peptide-binding groove of MHC class, thus exerting their effects as an intact molecule without being processed. (arvojournals.org)
  • Similarly, dendritic cells pulsed with the MHC class I-restricted nucleoprotein 147-155 peptide were poor stimulators in the absence of exogenous helper factors. (rupress.org)
  • Par la suite, des mécanismes de recyclage vésiculaire assurent le transport des complexes peptide-CMH de classe II à la surface de la cellule afin de stimuler les lymphocytes T CD4+. (umontreal.ca)
  • unresponsiveness
  • Experiments in animals show that UV exposure decreases the immune response to skin cancers, infectious agents, and other antigens and can lead to unresponsiveness upon repeated challenges. (columbia.edu)
  • The proliferative unresponsiveness of the secondary SAg responder T cells has been termed anergy. (arvojournals.org)
  • serum
  • Improvements of serum antigen-specific IgG and IgE response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and tetanus vaccination suggesting a B cell dependent mechanism have been reported in vaccination studies with larch arabinogalactan, while the absence of response following influenza vaccination suggests the involvement of a T cell dependent mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The immunosuppressive effect of vincristine on allostimulatory potential of human dendritic cells interferes with their function and survival. (springer.com)
  • These diverse cells then communicate both directly and through paracrine mediators to facilitate the steroidogenic function and also the transient nature of the CL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once the hormonal regulators of luteal function and demise (for example, LH and prostaglandin F 2α ) had been clearly delineated, considerable effort in the late 1970s and 1980s was spent characterizing the morphological and functional characteristics of the large and small steroidogenic cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • leukocyte
  • The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. (scielo.br)
  • human
  • PITPNM3/Nir1 was shown to be expressed in human retina, brain, spleen as well as ovary and recently it was also shown to be abundantly expressed in breast cancer cells ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)