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  • genetic
  • We also saw that the embryos that developed the furthest were from the same egg donors, suggesting that genetic variation between egg donors plays an important role in the developmental potential of cloned embryos. (bioethics.net)
  • Unlike sexual reproduction, during which a new organism is formed when the genetic material of the egg and sperm fuse, in nuclear transplantation cloning there is a single genetic "parent. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Researchers working with clones of a Holstein cow say genetic programming errors may explain why so many cloned animals die, either as fetuses or newborns. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • There are now only 22, and they not only lack the genetic diversity needed to create a library of stem cell types but are contaminated by mouse proteins and viruses, so are unsuitable for transplants. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post . (wikipedia.org)
  • An important first step in attaining this goal is the production of pluripotent stem cells directly from individual patients, thereby providing autologous material which, after correcting intrinsic genetic defects and differentiation into required cell types or tissues, could be transplanted into the patient. (stembook.org)
  • Such stem cells, following differentiation into the disease-relevant cell types, would serve as the key substrate for disease models to study the patient's condition, drug discovery to slow or stop cellular degeneration, and cell replacement therapies after any intrinsic disease-causing genetic defects were repaired (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • And, fourth, techniques for repairing any intrinsic disease-causing genetic defects and transplantation of the repaired, differentiated cells into the patient. (stembook.org)
  • 2006 ), or by using ES cell lines established from embryos following preimplantation genetic diagnosis (Eiges et al. (stembook.org)
  • The FDA claims "Clones are really just genetic copies of the animals from which they are produced" and that claim is parroted by bureaucrats in EU. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Bell also wrote much of the five volume Treasury of Human Inheritance, a collection about genetics and genetic disorders. (asu.edu)
  • Likewise, the definitions of terms such as "gametes", or "diploid cells" could also defer to those used in the Congressional cloning "bans", thus allowing much human cloning and human genetic engineering. (lifeissues.net)
  • Such chaos will take on new meaning with human genetic engineering already firmly on track. (lifeissues.net)
  • The cells are being studied to be used as clinical therapies, models of genetic disorders , and cellular/DNA repair. (wikiyy.com)
  • Aside from these uses, embryonic stem cells can also serve as tools for the investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikiyy.com)
  • The final law bans "cloning of a human being," defined as "the replication of a human individual by cultivating a cell with genetic material through the egg, embryo, fetal and newborn stages into a new human individual. (blogspot.com)
  • Safety reviews of laboratory work that involves genetic alteration of hES cell lines. (nap.edu)
  • Because few studies exist to describe the unique molecular network regulation behind pig pre-implantation embryonic development (PED), genetic engineering in the pig embryo is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transfer of such cloned embryonic stem cells into a patient would be therefore extremely hazardous: these cells might provoke genetic disorders, or initiate leukemias or other cancers. (vatican.va)
  • This asexual form of reproduction would bypass the usual 'shuffling' of genes that makes every individual unique in his/her genome and would arbitrarily fix the genotype in one particular configuration, (12) with predictable negative genetic consequences for the human genepool. (vatican.va)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, a technique called handmade cloning was introduced, which is cheaper and simpler, without the need for micromanipulation and also works better. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS , "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikiyy.com)
  • ethical
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast , or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process which raises ethical issues , including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikiyy.com)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. (jci.org)
  • At present, new ethical issues are beginning to emerge around the derivation and use of other hES cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue. (jci.org)
  • In the near future, as the stem cell field progresses closer to the clinic, additional ethical issues are likely to arise concerning the clinical translation of basic stem cell knowledge into reasonably safe, effective, and accessible patient therapies. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • These ethical objections cannot be over-ridden by the claim that the embryo is entitled to a "special respect" but that this respect can be violated if there is sufficient benefit for others. (blogspot.com)
  • Nor can the ethical issues be side-stepped by calling the blastocyst a "pre-embryo. (blogspot.com)
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • donor
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Importantly, these cells are genetically identical to the donor. (jove.com)
  • The manipulator is used to remove the nucleus from an egg which is then fused with a cell from a donor animal. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The half egg lacking a nucleus is fused with a donor somatic cell and the fused egg half is fused again with a second enucleate half egg before it is activated (with a mild electric shock) to produce an embryo that is then implanted in a surrogate mother . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • spinal cord injuries , age related macular degeneration , diabetes , neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease ), AIDS , etc. In addition to their potential in regenerative medicine, embryonic stem cells provide an alternative source of tissue/organs which serves as a possible solution to the donor shortage dilemma. (wikiyy.com)
  • destruction
  • National governments make rules that govern the creation, destruction, and use of embryos in the laboratory-but they do so in profoundly different ways. (scribd.com)
  • In an anti-abortion statement read with Mr. Bush at his side, the Pope spoke of "evils such as euthanasia, infanticide and, most recently, proposals for the creation for research purposes of human embryos, destined to destruction in the process. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Many Americans oppose human embryonic stem cell research because it involves the destruction of embryos, which they regard as morally equivalent to you and me. (dartmouth.edu)
  • early embryonic
  • Gene-regulation networks of mouse PEDs have been extensively studied and reported [ 15 - 17 ], but scarce information regarding molecular mechanism of pig early embryonic development as well as other large domestic animals has limited our knowledge of developmental biology and aspects of engineering their stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This past December, a Japanese government panel recommended allowing limited stem-cell research on human embryos. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • On Thursday, August 9, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush's decided to allow federal funding for limited stem-cell research, as provided by the White House. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Federal funding will apply only to research using existing embryonic stem-cell lines, that is, stem cells already harvested from destroyed embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In a direct appeal to George W. Bush at the papal summer retreat on July 23rd, the Pope told the visiting U.S. President that the creation of human embryos for research purposes is morally wrong. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In August 2001, shortly after ACT's research began, President Bush announced a policy permitting federal funding for research on only a limited number of embryonic stem cell lines created before that date. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Scope: This document describes when research activities involving human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human embryonic germ cells derived from fetal tissue , or hESC- or germ cell-derived test articles are considered human subjects research and what regulatory controls apply to that research. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There is simply no case for supporting research in hES cells any longer. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • Those who oppose embryonic stem cell research believe for religious or other personal reasons that all preimplantation embryos have a moral standing equal to all living persons, regardless of whether they are located in a fertility clinic dish or in a woman's body. (jci.org)
  • In this view, destroying preimplantation embryos during the course of research is akin to murder and therefore never acceptable, no matter how noble the aims of the research may be. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • Harvard alumnus James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Biological Engineering department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has "come out" with his opposition to cloning and destructive embryonic stem cell research. (lifeethics.org)
  • This promise was the earliest misleading misinformation from proponents of human embryo research. (lifeethics.org)
  • California's biomedical industry has already begun its lobbying campaign against legislation to guarantee the state shares in the potential bounty from products developed from its $3 billion stem cell research effort. (blogspot.com)
  • Bush's new appointed head of the President's Council on Bioethics, on the morality of research carried out on embryos -- from testimony before congress in 1999. (blogspot.com)
  • The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has a very thoroughly researched article up discussing "research cloning" and current state legislation regarding cloning. (blogspot.com)
  • Until recently, groups promoting research cloning, such as the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), supported state and federal bills that prohibit implanting a cloned embryo in a womb. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, in Congress they supported the "Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act" of 2003 (S. 303). (blogspot.com)
  • People see the name Christopher Reeve and assume that it is about embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • It would be a mistake to assume that the restrictions on federal funding for human embryonic stem (hES) cell research result in an absence of oversight of such work. (nap.edu)
  • Animal care committee reviews of hES cell research that uses nonhuman animals. (nap.edu)
  • This chapter reviews current state and federal regulation of hES cell research in the United States, noting where gaps in regulatory coverage are addressed by the guidelines proposed later in this report ( Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • and presents comparisons with regulations in other nations that have substantial hES cell research programs. (nap.edu)
  • Recommendations about the application of existing regulatory conventions to hES cell research are offered. (nap.edu)
  • In the context of privately funded research it is particularly difficult to explore mechanisms by which discoveries made using hES cells can be made widely accessible for the benefit of human health. (nap.edu)
  • Several policy statements developed regarding patenting and licensing issues more generally applied in biomedical science can serve as aspirational goals for the hES cell research community. (nap.edu)
  • ScienceDaily (Dec. 3, 2007) - A noninvasive, polarized light microscope invented at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) played a crucial role in a recent breakthrough in embryonic stem-cell research aimed at developing medical therapies. (blogspot.com)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Also, this lack of research has hindered derivation and application of porcine embryonic stem cells and porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Induction-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Models for Cell-Diversification Are Mutually Exclusive," Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175, (1985): 3-11. (lifeissues.net)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • Nevertheless, it remains clear that clever and innovative efforts to generate pluripotent stem cells through research cloning as well as through alternative methods continue unabated. (yale.edu)
  • In this Article, I discuss the recent development of "alternative" methodsthat is, techniques that do not involve research cloning-to derive pluripotent stem cells, most prominently among them, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (yale.edu)
  • fetal
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)
  • mammalian
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • Our understanding of mammalian embryology, and of pluripotent stem cells, is based chiefly on studies in the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • Dolly
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • therapies
  • and clashes over embryo donation and equal access to infertility and stem cell therapies. (scribd.com)
  • If we could unlock the secrets of this kind of cellular immortality and reverse cell death, said West, we might be able to apply that to developing new approaches to medical therapies. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The production of cellular therapies requires the optimization of four steps: first, isolating and culturing cells that can be readily obtained from a patient in a non-invasive fashion. (stembook.org)
  • oocytes
  • In 1969, more than ten years after the first attempts to treat infertilities with IVF technologies, the British developmental biologist Robert Geoffrey Edwards fertilized human oocytes in a Petri dish for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • Human subjects protection for donors of somatic cells and oocytes and for some donors of embryos. (nap.edu)
  • Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytoplasmic factors present in mature, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes have a unique ability to reset the identity of transplanted somatic cell nuclei to the embryonic state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, we reasoned that, similar to other mammals, human MII oocytes must contain reprogramming activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • biological
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • When the errant biological properties of human embryonic stem cells are considered, it is difficult to foresee them ever being used directly as cures in children or adults. (lifeethics.org)
  • From a biological standpoint, bringing cloned human embryos to birth would be dangerous for the human species. (vatican.va)
  • differentiate
  • HESCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. (stanford.edu)
  • We need to take these differences into account when we consider the embryological context in which the embryological counterparts of ES cells from the two species first appear (pre-implantation blastocyst) and then differentiate (early postimplantation period). (biologists.org)
  • bioethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It's about stem cells, cloning, bioethics and genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • A number of studies have successfully demonstrated the viability of theoretical proposals previously offered by President Bush's Council on Bioethics to generate alternative sources of pluripotent cells, at least in the experimental setting. (yale.edu)
  • Thus
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the human enzymes, mouse caspase-7 is as efficient as caspase-3 at cleaving and thus inactivating ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • moral
  • Respect is inherent in the moral status of what the human embryo is in fact. (blogspot.com)
  • There is no arbitrary point at which we can logically confer or withdraw the moral claim of the embryo for protection of its life. (blogspot.com)
  • epigenetic
  • The most critical factor is epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus from its differentiated status into the totipotent state of the early embryo. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The following article reviews the present knowledge on the epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus, with emphasis on DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and telomere length restoration in bovine development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Additionally, we briefly discuss other approaches towards epigenetic nuclear reprogramming, including the fusion of somatic and embryonic stem cells and the overexpression of genes crucial in the formation and maintenance of the pluripotent status. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). (jove.com)
  • 9) Embryonic stem cells harvested from abnormal and unfit embryos will carry their 'epigenetic defects' and transmit at least part of them to their daughter cells. (vatican.va)
  • Genome
  • Pig zygotic genome activation was confirmed to occur at the 4-cell stage via genome-wide gene expression analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few interspecies differences do occur, such as time spent at each stage, timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and cell lineage commitment initiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ethically
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)