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  • neurons
  • In SMA, motor neurons selectively degenerate, however, the mechanism of cell death and the precise role of SMN in this process are not completely understood. (ox.ac.uk)
  • proliferation
  • The regulation of muscle cell size is a tightly regulated phenomena, and it is a balance between muscle proliferation and degradation of pre-existing proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are considered terminally differentiated, incapable of proliferation and irreversibly withdrawn from the cell cycle soon after birth ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • However, its role in proliferation of cardiomyocyte derived from NPY-pretreated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and its therapeutic potential in stem cell-mediated therapy for MI has not been explored to date. (physiology.org)
  • Here, we have investigated whether NPY can trigger cell-cycle reentry in neonatal or adult cardiomyocytes and increase the proliferation of transplanted MSC that have already differentiated into cardiomyocytes within the infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
  • We discovered that feeding triggers insulin production by blood-brain barrier glial cells, activating the insulin/IGF pathway in underlying neural stem cells and stimulating their growth and proliferation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This project will investigate the systemic and local signals that regulate stem cell growth and proliferation and the role of glia in inducing neural stem cell exit from quiescence. (cam.ac.uk)
  • IVD-like low glucose enhanced matrix biosynthesis and maintained cell proliferation whereas IVD-like high osmolarity and low pH conditions were critical factors that reduced biosynthesis and proliferation of young and mature MSCs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We evaluated in vivo interactions between extrinsic (growth factor induced) and intrinsic (genetically determined) effectors of mouse primitive hemopoietic stem cell proliferation and numbers. (nih.gov)
  • Using a Lrig1 knock-out mouse model, we could demonstrate that Lrig1 is essential in regulating EGFR signaling in intestinal stem cells, thereby balancing the need for tissue regeneration and suppression of malignant hyper-proliferation. (uu.nl)
  • These mRNA targets are implicated in cell proliferation and protein modification, both of which are involved in tumorigenesis. (biologists.org)
  • proteins
  • In dividing Drosophila neural progenitors the apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle, the basal cortical localization of the cell fate determinants Numb and/or Prospero as well as the coordination of these events are mediated by several proteins which include Bazooka (Baz), Inscuteable (Insc) and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) which localize as an apical cortical complex starting at interphase. (mendeley.com)
  • B. Stem cells are identified by marker proteins expressed on their surface. (cram.com)
  • A signature comprising 510 genes and proteins could be established: The intestinal stem cell signature was defined. (uu.nl)
  • Among the 510 genes and proteins defining the intestinal stem cell signature were a multitude of interesting candidates for further functional tests. (uu.nl)
  • Rats
  • An 8-vessel-occlusion (8VO) method was developed to compare with the conventional 4-vessel-occlusion (4VO) in hippocampal ischemic damage and progenitor cell induction 10 days following ischemia in female rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In 4VO group, BrdU positive cells were mainly located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) with a count of 54+/-20/mm2 (7micro-thick slice), comparable to the maximal level following global ischemia in male gerbils and rats reported so far referring to slice-thickness differences (50-60 micro-thick slices). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, severe ischemia correlates with vigorous induction of the hippocampal progenitor cells in rats while behavioral profiling of posture changes permits prediction of severity of damage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • progenitor cell
  • Administration of the early acting cytokine flt-3 ligand to these strains resulted in activation of quiescent primitive stem cells exclusively in strains with high endogenous stem cell numbers (DBA and AKR), but was unrelated to strain-specific progenitor cell cycling. (nih.gov)
  • Investigations regarding the airway epithelium have led to many advances over the past few decades, but new developments in genetics and stem cell/progenitor cell biology have opened the door to understanding how the airway epithelium is developed and maintained, and how it responds to environmental stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wnt, Notch, thyroid hormones) important for progenitor cell homeostasis, which is affected in intestinal tumorigenesis. (biologists.org)
  • mammalian
  • Our work aims to decipher cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the establishment and the maintenance of pluripotency in several species including porcine, bovine and caprine but also Aves as a model of non-mammalian species and to compare them with those of the canonical mouse model, taken as the reference in the stem cell field. (sbri.fr)
  • Primordial germ cells (PGC), which are closely related to ESCs but specified differently in avian species compared to mammalian ones, are also isolated, in vitro grown in long term cultures and analysed. (sbri.fr)
  • By using this "Yamanaka" cocktail combined with other factors, we derive new induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell types from various mammalian rent animals (pig, sheep, goat, bovine, horse, etc…) or from more exotic ones such as bats and avian species (chicken, quail, duck). (sbri.fr)
  • This study shows for the first time that knockdown of SMN results in apoptosis in mammalian neuronal cells and has implications for understanding the cause of motor neuron-specific cell loss in SMA, and for identifying novel therapeutic targets for this disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although the function of Msi1 has been studied in several organs from different species and in mammalian cell lines, its function and molecular regulation in mouse intestinal epithelium progenitor cells are still undefined. (biologists.org)
  • progenitors
  • It is becoming increasingly evident that a therapeutic application, to be effective, needs to target not only mature myofibers, but also muscle progenitors cells or muscle stem cells able to form new muscle tissue and to restore myofibers lost as the result of the diseases or during normal homeostasis so as to guarantee effective and lost lasting effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell cycle machinery and asymmetric cell division of neural progenitors in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. (mendeley.com)
  • These somatic stem cells self-renew by asymmetric division and give rise to undifferentiated progenitors that proliferate, differentiate while migrating, and are eventually shed in the lumen after apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • quiescent
  • Neural stem cells in the adult brain exist primarily in a quiescent state but can be reactivated in response to changing physiological conditions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In the Drosophila central nervous system, quiescent neural stem cells are reactivated synchronously in response to a nutritional stimulus. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We showed that gap junctions in the blood-brain barrier glia mediate the influence of metabolic changes on stem cell behaviour, enabling glia to respond to nutritional signals and reactivate quiescent stem cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The population size of primitive stem cells (CAFC day 35) varied widely (up to sevenfold) among strains, unlike total CAFC day 7 numbers (cycling and quiescent), which were similar. (nih.gov)
  • Tnfrsf19 positive chief cells therefore represent a quiescent pool of cells with multi-lineage stem cell potential both in homeostasis as well as in challenged situations. (uu.nl)
  • Homeostasis
  • Physiological regeneration occurs naturally as a consequence of normal cell erosion, or as an inevitable outcome of any biological process aiming at the restoration of homeostasis. (wingsforlife.com)
  • We could show that Tnfrsf19 positive cells are able to contribute to the normal homeostasis of the stomach by infrequently proliferating. (uu.nl)
  • Regeneration
  • At the suboptimal injection dose of 1 × 10 6 cells/kg, poly(I:C)-treated MSC, but not untreated MSC, effectively stimulated regeneration of the failing hamster heart 1 mo after cell administration. (physiology.org)
  • Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) introduced intravenously can have profound anti-inflammatory activity resulting in suppression of graft vs. host disease as well as regenerative events in the case of stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of these diseases. (physiology.org)
  • and 5 ) regeneration (i.e., mitotic for host-derived progenitor cells). (physiology.org)
  • therapies
  • Pathological conditions modify the microenvironment of stem cells (the so-called niche) preventing the activation of resident stem cells and reducing the success of exogenous cell therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Potential therapies could include stimulating the myocytes to divide and adding new cells via pharmacological and genetic manipulations or delivering stem cells to multiply and subsequently differentiate into cardiomyocytes ( 7 ). (physiology.org)
  • Here, we critically review the state of art about mesenchymal stem cell role in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia, focusing on immune escaping mechanisms as a target for available and future anticancer therapies. (hindawi.com)
  • epithelial
  • Airway epithelial cells: current concepts and challenges. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The adult human bronchial tree is covered with a continuous layer of epithelial cells that play a critical role in maintaining the conduit for air, and which are central to the defenses of the lung against inhaled environmental concomitants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells, gene expression, cell-cell interactions, and less frequent cell types, and discusses the challenges for future areas of investigation regarding the airway epithelium in health and disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • tissue
  • Characteristic is the progressive loss of muscle mass which has been attributed, at least in part, to the inability of muscle stem cells to efficiently regenerate tissue lost as the result of the disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Critical to the development of effective strategies to treat muscle disorders is the optimization of approaches targeting muscle stem cells and capable of regenerating tissue lost as the result of the disease or as the result of normal muscle turnover. (frontiersin.org)
  • Daughter cells originated by the division of stem cells can either retain their stem cell identity or differentiate into a more committed lineage capable of producing new muscle tissue or of fusing with preexisting myofibers to repair damage ones. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results suggest that transplanted NPCs promote tissue repair not only via cell replacement but also through their local contribution to changes in the diseased tissue milieu. (wingsforlife.com)
  • These findings broach a novel concept of stem cell trophic factor-mediated tissue repair. (physiology.org)
  • Upon tissue damage, these cells can be activated. (uu.nl)
  • 3D stem cell aggregates hold great promise as they may recapitulate the in vivo skeletal tissue condensation, a property that is not typically observed in 2D culture. (nih.gov)
  • therapeutic
  • Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hype is well-earned because of the potential of stem cells to contribute to disease modeling, drug screening, and even therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in spite of numerous statements in the social media declaring that these cells can be used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, the clinical applications remain few ( Aznar and Sanchez, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we will propose the concept of the context-dependent potency of transplanted NPCs (therapeutic plasticity) to exert multiple therapeutic actions, such as cell replacement, neurotrophic support, and immunomodulation, in CNS repair. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Although administration of sufficient cells is necessary to achieve maximal therapeutic benefits, documented MSC clinical trials have largely relied on injections of ∼1 × 10 6 cells/kg, which appears too low to elicit a robust therapeutic response according to published preclinical studies. (physiology.org)
  • Despite encouraging results from preclinical studies, however, clinical trials of stem cell therapy have thus far demonstrated moderate and inconsistent benefits ( 2 , 48 , 73 ), indicating an urgent need to optimize the therapeutic platform and enhance stem cell potency. (physiology.org)
  • Tumor
  • B. A tumor cell resistant to cancer chemotherapy. (cram.com)
  • C. A tumor cell capable of producing a new tumor when transplanted. (cram.com)
  • Several studies have linked Msi1 with both stem cell and tumor biology, through its functional relations with signaling pathways. (biologists.org)
  • Recently, a subpopulation of tumor cells has been identified in HNSCC based on the overexpression of the cellular marker CD44 and increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase. (frontiersin.org)
  • These cells have been designated CSC based on their stem cell-like properties: self-renewal, tumorigenesis, and the ability to recapitulate a heterogeneous tumor. (frontiersin.org)
  • As the number of mutations accumulates, cells ultimately become immortalized, where each cell is capable of initiating tumor growth (Figure 1A ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, the CSC theory explains that there exists a hierarchy of cells, where CSC are capable of unregulated asymmetric division, which is responsible for self-renewal and generation of a diverse population of differentiated progenitor cells that ultimately make up a heterogeneous tumor. (frontiersin.org)
  • cardiac
  • NPY directly induced neonatal and adult cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry and enhanced the number of differentiated cardiomyocytes from MSC in the infarcted myocardium, which corresponded to improved cardiac function, reduced fibrosis, ventricular remodeling, and increased angiomyogenesis. (physiology.org)
  • fetal and neonatal cardiac myocytes are capable of undergoing DNA synthesis and cell division. (physiology.org)
  • Recent reports have shown that adult cardiac myocytes can be induced to reenter into cell cycle with periostin ( 17 ), p38 MAP kinase inhibitor ( 8 ), cyclin D1/CDK4 ( 27 ), cyclin A2 ( 3 ), and transforming growth factor-β ( 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • This treatment attenuates remodeling of the myocardium by enhanced neovascularization, reduced inflammation and cardiac hypertrophy, and increased recruitment of endogenous cardiac stem cells. (physiology.org)
  • MSCs
  • In addition, it has not been completely elucidated whether cancer-associated MSCs belong primarily to the abnormal clone or emerge after leukemic stem cell induced environmental damage. (hindawi.com)
  • After 30 min, human MSCs (1 million cells, n = 5) or placebo ( n = 5) were injected intramyocardially into the RV free wall. (physiology.org)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Responses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from 2 age groups was analyzed under chemical conditions representative of the intervertebral disc (IVD) (low glucose levels, acidic pH, high osmolarity, and combined conditions). (ox.ac.uk)
  • endogenous
  • To identify loci affecting the size of the endogenous stem cell pool, we made use of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from C57BL/6 (a group 2 strain, Fig. 4) and DBA/2 (a group 3 strain) parental founders. (nih.gov)
  • differentiate
  • Bio As a stem cell biologist, my overall goal is to understand the mechanisms through which stem cells differentiate into progressively-specialized cell-types and to harness this knowledge to artificially generate pure populations of desired cell-types from stem cells. (stanford.edu)
  • However, it has been notoriously difficult to guide PSCs to differentiate into a pure population of a given cell-type. (stanford.edu)
  • To address this challenge, I mapped the cascade of branching lineage choices through which PSCs differentiate into a variety of endodermal and mesodermal cell-types. (stanford.edu)
  • vitro
  • We were pioneers in the isolation, in vitro establishment and characterization of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESC) ( Pain et al, 1996 ). (sbri.fr)
  • In a second part we compare the various cell types available and their advantages for in vitro modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the production of embryonic stem cells, which of the following correctly describes an advantage of the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method compared to the in vitro fertilization method? (cram.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be used as an alternative model in vitro system to investigate the role of cell-cell interactions in the developing pancreas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • interactions
  • Cell-type-specific profiling of protein-DNA interactions without cell isolation using targeted DamID with next-generation sequencing. (cam.ac.uk)
  • However, it remains unclear whether these functional interactions also play a role in intestinal stem cell physiology, because only recently have robust markers for these cells been described ( Montgomery and Breault, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
  • elongation
  • Loss-of-function mutants of the ACAULIS5 ( ACL5 ) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana have severe defects in stem elongation. (oup.com)
  • Thus we conclude that thermospermine is indeed produced through the action of ACL5 and required for stem elongation in Arabidopsis. (oup.com)
  • cardiomyocytes
  • Several studies with fetal cardiomyocytes have shown the SR undeveloped and suggested that the sarcolemmal Ca 2+ influx may be a main resource of [Ca 2+ ] i transients in such cells ( 21 , 26 , 28 ), and high expression and current density of NCX were detected in embryonic cardiomyocytes ( 17 , 21 , 31 , 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) induced reentry of differentiated rat neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle. (physiology.org)
  • genetic
  • In 1962, Cambridge biologist John Gurdon proved the impossible possible by demonstrating that a fully developed cell, taken from the intestine an adult frog, contained all the genetic information necessary to give rise to an entirely new frog. (gizmodo.com)
  • marker
  • After identification of Lgr5 as a specific marker for intestinal stem cells by Barker et al, we now set out to characterize them in depth. (uu.nl)
  • mice
  • Accordingly, stem cell frequency and cell cycle kinetics were assessed in eight strains of inbred mice using the cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay. (nih.gov)
  • To map loci affecting stem cell frequency, we quantified stem cells in BXD recombinant inbred mice (offspring of C57BL/6 and DBA/2). (nih.gov)
  • Each value is based on the analysis of pooled marrow cells obtained from three BXD mice. (nih.gov)
  • lineage
  • This mouse allows for the detection and isolation of Tnfrsf19 expressing cell populations and at the same time for lineage tracing when crossed with a Cre reporter line. (uu.nl)
  • Lineage tracing from the Tnfrsf19 locus resulted in the labeling of all differentiated cell types of the gastric corpus. (uu.nl)
  • isolation
  • It will take advantage of 'Targeted DamID', a technique we developed to enable cell type-specific transcriptional profiling in intact organisms, without cell isolation. (cam.ac.uk)