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  • myeloid
  • Mice with PTEN-mutant bone marrow also have an increased representation of myeloid and T-lymphoid lineages and develop myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). (nih.gov)
  • Notably, the cell populations that expand in PTEN mutants match those that become dominant in the acute myeloid/lymphoid leukaemia that develops in the later stages of MPD. (nih.gov)
  • We discuss these findings with respect to known developmental heterogeneity in other HSC-derived lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages, and how HSC developmental heterogeneity conforms to the layered model of the evolution of the immune system that we proposed some years ago. (pnas.org)
  • tissue
  • Finally, using basic knowledge of the target tissue and the guidelines discussed herein, we explain how raw lineage information can be converted into sound conclusions about the number, location, behavior and regulation of tissue stem cells. (stembook.org)
  • While some cells in a typical tissue may persist indefinitely, many more live only briefly and are replaced by processes of repair and renewal that require new cells to arise and differentiate. (stembook.org)
  • Although stem cells are critically important for tissue health and homeostasis, finding these cells and characterizing their cellular properties is difficult. (stembook.org)
  • Patterns of gene expression, like classical histological stains, are essential markers in the quest to understand tissue biology, but are entirely insufficient to reliably identify stem cells or to understand tissue dynamics. (stembook.org)
  • Lineage analysis, a technique originally developed to study early embryos, represents by far the most powerful and reliable tool for identifying stem cells and for deciphering other aspects of tissue behavior. (stembook.org)
  • In the absence of extensive cell mixing, a thorough analysis of all the clonal types produced by a tissue allows the complexity of its component cell types and their movements to be determined. (stembook.org)
  • Finally, clonally analyzing stem cells is an essential prerequisite for discovering and characterizing the tissue niches that play an equal role with stem cells in ensuring a stable supply of replacement cells throughout the life of a tissue. (stembook.org)
  • In this hypothetical tissue, four stem cells (highlighted in dark blue at the beginning of the movie) are maintained in a niche (blue gradient highlighted in light blue at the beginning of the movie) produced by a population of non-dividing niche-generating cells (purple, highlighted in red at the beginning of the movie). (stembook.org)
  • Adult stem cells, also termed as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells, detected among differentiated cells in a tissue or an organ. (springer.com)
  • Adult stem cells can differentiate toward lineage specific cell types of the tissue or organ in which they reside. (springer.com)
  • Chijimatsu R, Kobayashi M, Ebina K, Iwahashi T, Okuno Y, Hirao M, Fukuhara A, Nakamura N, Yoshikawa H (2018) Impact of dexamethasone concentration on cartilage tissue formation from human synovial derived stem cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • EATONTOWN, N.J., April 24, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- American CryoStem Corporation (OTCQB:CRYO), a leading biotechnology developer and licensor of patented adipose tissue-based adult stem cell technologies, today announced that its ACS Laboratory division has completed its quarterly laboratory R&D program ahead of schedule, yielding new intellectual property and positive results for expanding and differentiating adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). (cnbc.com)
  • Dr. Michael Moeller, Chief Scientist at American CryoStem, stated, "The development of rapid, efficient and reproducible methods of differentiating distinct mature cells from adipose tissue will prove invaluable to the Regenerative Medicine industry. (cnbc.com)
  • A biotechnology pioneer in the fields of Regenerative and Personalized Medicine, American CryoStem operates a state-of-the-art, FDA-registered, clinical laboratory dedicated to processing, bio-banking and development of cellular applications using autologous adipose (fat) tissue and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). (cnbc.com)
  • Differentiation competence of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells toward retinal lineage. (arvojournals.org)
  • To investigate the differentiation competence of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) toward retinal lineage by inhibiting BMP and Wnt signaling. (arvojournals.org)
  • Adult stem cells are involved in the repair of tissue and in maintaining a balance between stem cell and differentiated cell populations by asymmetrical cell division [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although adult stem cell populations are found in most adult tissue, the bone marrow is an ideal source of stem cells because it is easily accessible and can be used for cell and gene therapy [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Because the skin contains several resident stem cell populations and undergoes constant turnover, it is an ideal tissue in which to study this phenomenon. (springer.com)
  • Skin wounds can be repaired by primitive stem cells into fully differentiated tissue, complete with hairs and sebaceous glands. (sciencemag.org)
  • All ES cell lines were maintained in GMEM (Sigma, G5154) supplemented with 10% FCS (Invitrogen), 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol (BDH, 441413), 1×MEM non-essential amino acids (Invitrogen, 1140-036), 2 mM l -glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate (both from Invitrogen), and 100 units/ml LIF (made in-house) on gelatinised tissue culture flasks ( Smith, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • A major area in regenerative medicine is the application of stem cells in cartilage tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The formation of cells normally not present in skin might be due to transdifferentiation, which describes the conversion of a cell type of a specific tissue lineage into a cell type of another lineage ( Wagers and Weissman, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • cytokine
  • J. R. Boiko and L. Borghesi, "Hematopoiesis sculpted by pathogens: toll-like receptors and inflammatory mediators directly activate stem cells," Cytokine , vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • chondrocytes
  • Breakthroughs in American CryoStem's proprietary cell culture medium (ACSelerate TM ) and culturing methodology have enabled the Company to accelerate the robust cellular expansion and rapid differentiation of ADSCs to adipocytes (fat cells), chondrocytes (cartilage-producing cells) and osteocytes (bone-producing cells). (cnbc.com)
  • leukaemia
  • Rapid intraclonal switch of lineage dominance in congenital leukaemia with a MLL gene rearrangement," Leukemia , vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2023-2026, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that the transcription factor (TF) stem cell leukaemia (Scl/Tal1) is crucial for development of these adult haemangioblasts in Xenopus and establish the regulatory cascade controlling its expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Biology
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells have critical roles in development and homeostasis;understanding their biology is essential for re- generative medicine, preventing and treating cancer, and developing therapies to combat aging and degenerative disease. (grantome.com)
  • Dr. Fernando Camargo is a Principal Investigator at Boston Children's Hospital and Professor in the Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University. (stemcellpodcast.com)
  • populations
  • In contrast, B-1a cells are relatively well reconstituted by transfers of HSC populations sorted from "neonatal" BM (2.5 wk of age), although the sorted cells still predominantly reconstitute B-2 and B-1b ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • markers
  • Real time RT-PCR and flow cytometry show that the hES cell markers decline over the 21 day differentiation time period, p63 expression peaks at day 6, and this is followed by a peak in CK3 expression at day 15. (arvojournals.org)
  • They expressed none of the known bulge stem cell markers. (sciencemag.org)
  • The key downstream role of Erk signalling is revealed by examination of Erk2- null ES cells, which fail to undergo either neural or mesodermal differentiation in adherent culture, and retain expression of pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog and Rex1. (biologists.org)
  • molecular
  • Albelda, S. M., Muller, W. A., Buck, C. A., and Newman, P. J. (1991) Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule. (springer.com)
  • Studies in Aim 2 will elucidate molecular mechanisms of TH activities in pigment stem cell lineages by testing roles for canonical (""""""""genomic"""""""") signaling, in which liganded TH receptors directly modulate target gene transcription, and non-canonical mechanisms, in which TH promotes cytoskeletal changes and interacts with a variety of signaling pathways. (grantome.com)
  • Additional analyses will test two molecular mechanisms that are excellent candidates for mediating TH effects on pigment cells, via hypoxia inducible factor 1? (grantome.com)
  • distinct
  • The ability to quickly grow large numbers of ADSCs from patient samples and to rapidly differentiate them into distinct lineages will open the door to multiple therapeutic and regenerative approaches supported in our ongoing university and corporate collaborations. (cnbc.com)
  • Thus, self-renewing cells in the adult skin can be obtained from several neural crest derivatives, and these are of distinct nature in face and trunk skin. (rupress.org)
  • vitro
  • In a second part we compare the various cell types available and their advantages for in vitro modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • SKPs have the potential to produce in vitro cell types normally not found in the skin, such as neuronal cells. (rupress.org)
  • dynamics
  • However, like the generation of a 3D protein structure from its diffraction patterns, constructing an accurate picture of a tissue's dynamics from its lineage patterns is complex, non-intuitive, and fraught with potential problems. (stembook.org)
  • Blanpain C, Simons BD (2013) Unravelling stem cell dynamics by lineage tracing. (springer.com)
  • gene
  • A ) Expression of the Rosa-LacZ reporter gene in Troy + cells one day p.i. and followed for 1, 3, 6 month and 1.5 years p.i. (nih.gov)
  • We generated knock-in alleles of murine Lgr6 , a close relative of the Lgr5 stem cell gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • Why Nerve Cells Die in ALS - A mutation in a gene, called C9ORF72 , leads to toxicity in nerve cells, causing 10 percent of all cases of ALS and an additional 10 percent of frontotemporal dementia. (stemcellpodcast.com)
  • therapeutic
  • The hype is well-earned because of the potential of stem cells to contribute to disease modeling, drug screening, and even therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in spite of numerous statements in the social media declaring that these cells can be used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, the clinical applications remain few ( Aznar and Sanchez, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our concept exploits the design of supramolecular biomaterials as a strategy for discovering cell-directing bioactive metabolites of therapeutic relevance. (gla.ac.uk)
  • generate
  • Non-stem cells generate clones known as transient clones, that tend to be variable in size because they commence at every point along the lineage. (stembook.org)
  • Differentiated Troy+ chief cells act as reserve stem cells to generate all lineages of the stomach epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • By lineage tracing with a Troy-eGFP-ires-CreERT2 allele, single marked chief cells are shown to generate entirely labeled gastric units over periods of months. (nih.gov)
  • Troy(+) chief cells can be cultured to generate long-lived gastric organoids. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • We provide a large-scale proteomic resource of cell-surface proteins for the four embryo-derived stem cell lines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • P. Perez-Vera, A. Reyes-Leon, and E. M. Fuentes-Panana, "Signaling proteins and transcription factors in normal and malignant early B cell development," Bone Marrow Research , vol. 2011, Article ID 502751, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists Culture Human Placenta Stem Cells - Cells need certain proteins activated and others inhibited to stay alive and maintain the same characteristics they would have in utero . (stemcellpodcast.com)
  • somatic
  • Researchers Create First Primate Clones - Scientists successfully cloned cynomolgus monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer. (stemcellpodcast.com)
  • behavior
  • Implementing this lineage tracing approach while documenting changes in cell behavior brought about by the genetic alterations allows both aspects to be linked. (springer.com)
  • adipocytes
  • C3H10T1/2 cells treated with 5'-azacytidine and GH formed more myotubes, myoblasts, and fewer adipocytes compared to cells treated with 5'-azacytidine alone. (vt.edu)
  • chondrocyte
  • In order to unequivocally demonstrate that the lipid metabolites that we identified play key roles in driving differentiation, we subsequently demonstrated that these individual lipids can, when fed to standard stem cell cultures, induce differentiation toward chondrocyte and osteoblast phenotypes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • epidermis
  • Prenatal Lgr6+ cells established the hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and interfollicular epidermis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Postnatally, Lgr6+ cells generated sebaceous gland and interfollicular epidermis, whereas contribution to hair lineages gradually diminished with age. (sciencemag.org)
  • Determinants
  • We immunoprecipitated Stau2 to examine its cargo mRNAs, and found enrichment for known asymmetric and basal cell determinants, such as Trim32, and identified candidates, including a subset involved in primary cilium function. (biomedsearch.com)