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  • neurons
  • NSCs differentiated into neurons, with actively growing neurites, and astrocytes when cultured in differentiation medium (DM) or neurogenic medium (NM). (mit.edu)
  • Motor neurons are highly specialized neuronal cells that connect the central nervous system to muscle and degenerate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (northwestern.edu)
  • After analyzing the stem cells along with the differentiating neural progenitors and the motor neuron populations, Alberto Ortega, PhD, senior postdoctoral fellow in Kiskinis' laboratory and lead author on the study, concluded that the enzyme DNMT3A triggered DNA methylation, which in turn repressed or counterintuitively activated the key transcription factors that controlled differentiation of stem cells into spinal cord motor neurons. (northwestern.edu)
  • As stem cells transition from early progenitors to committed progenitors to developed neurons, DNA methylation allows for the induction or suppression of key transcription factors. (northwestern.edu)
  • This is intriguing, because people usually think about methylation in the context of cell differentiation - the role in developed neurons is largely overlooked. (northwestern.edu)
  • Only after Oct-4 overexpression did adult NSCs acquire a pluripotent state that allowed differentiation into midbrain DA neurons. (harvard.edu)
  • Lineage
  • This work reveals a correlation between the onset of stiffening and the expression of the microtubule associated protein DCAMKL1, thus implicating DCAMKL1 in a stress-stiffening-mediated, mechanostransduction pathway that involves microtubule dynamics in the mechanisms underlying stem cell differentiation and commitment to a specific cell lineage. (businesswire.com)
  • Our study highlights the potential linkage between myeloid-lineage blood stem cells and metabolic disruptions. (ucla.edu)
  • When hMSC were cultured onto the cRGD functionalized scaffolds, cells showed no increased proliferation or cell density but an induction of genes associated with the osteoblast lineage. (springer.com)
  • 2 Because the c-kit-positive rat cardiac stem cells used by Hosoda et al do express these miRNAs, 1 there is reason to assume that these cells are already more dedicated toward the myogenic lineage than the hCMPC cell population. (ahajournals.org)
  • scaffolds
  • Rat neural stem cells (NSCs) were cultured in monolayer or in porous collagen scaffolds and exposed to neurogenic or non-neurogenic medium to determine the effects on neural differentiation and neurite growth. (mit.edu)
  • Laminin coated scaffolds promoted the attachment of NSCs to the scaffold struts and resulted in a more even distribution of nestin and [beta]III-tubulin positive cells throughout the scaffold. (mit.edu)
  • Our novel approach uses embryo-derived decellularized hearts as scaffolds to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Improved mesenchymal stem cell seeding on RGD-modified poly( l -lactic acid) scaffolds using flow perfusion. (springer.com)
  • Promotion of cell affinity of porous PLLA scaffolds by immobilization of RGD peptides via plasma treatment. (springer.com)
  • maturation
  • however, matching the developmental stages of embryonic scaffold with primitive cardiac progenitors may be used to optimize the differentiation and maturation of bioengineered cardiac tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • However, variations in composition, concentration and timing of the signaling molecules can lead to marked differences in the resulting cultures and maturation stage of the desired cells. (springer.com)
  • fate
  • and ( ii ) manipulated differentiation begins with the removal of differentiation inhibitory factors, but at some point the cells are usually disaggregated and cultured with specific added factors to purify or to increase the proportion of cells that acquire a particular developmental fate. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. (nih.gov)
  • The research article, titled "Stress-stiffening-mediated stem-cell commitment switch in soft responsive hydrogels" introduces a new extracellular parameter, stress stiffening, as an important variable that governs stem cell fate. (businesswire.com)
  • These results are the first report of a microtubule-associated protein mediating microenvironmental signaling for stem cell fate guidance. (businesswire.com)
  • NF-κB is another known factor that controls cell fate, survival, and differentiation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Polycomb group (PcG) proteins mediate the epigenetic silencing of genes and have been implicated in regulating the fate of adult stem cells and their differentiation state. (biologists.org)
  • genes involved
  • In the resulting network, genes involved in similar biological processes or expressed at similar time points during differentiation were found to cluster together. (wur.nl)
  • protein
  • Interplay of matrix stiffness and protein tethering in stem cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. (nih.gov)
  • Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells can be readily switched from adipogenesis to osteogenesis by modulating expression of microtubule-associated protein DCAMKL1. (businesswire.com)
  • After 20 days of induction of differentiation, we analyzed the stem cell populations using gene and protein expression assays as well as biochemical functions. (rsc.org)
  • Despite the complexity of the protein network associated with stem cell development, the team discovered that restoring only one interaction-between Grb2 and a protein known as Ptpn11/Shp2 phosphatase-was enough to allow stem cells to again change into other cell types. (uchospitals.edu)
  • We were really surprised to find that consolidating many interactions down to a single particular connection for the protein was sufficient to support development of the cells to the next stage, which involves many complicated processes," Koide said. (uchospitals.edu)
  • The study, "Directed network wiring identifies a key protein interaction in embryonic stem cell differentiation," was supported by the National Institutes of Health. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, the increased cell death in mutant EBs is accompanied by reduced expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • qPCR
  • Oil Red O staining ( F ) and qPCR analysis ( G ) of vehicle or BMS-345541-treated C3H/10T1/2 cells induced by an adipogenic cocktail ( n = 3). (jci.org)
  • gene expression
  • Interestingly, basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not altered in ESCs, but Nsun3 inactivation attenuated induction of mitochondrial ROS upon stress, which may affect gene expression programs upon differentiation. (springer.com)
  • DNA methylation governs gene expression potential and hence cell identity," Kiskinis said. (northwestern.edu)
  • It seems if you don't set your DNA methylation patterns correctly, there's a cascade of irregular gene expression that results in defective cells," Kiskinis said. (northwestern.edu)
  • Mizuno M, Kuboki Y. Osteoblast-related gene expression of bone marrow cells during the osteoblastic differentiation induced by type I collagen. (springer.com)
  • membrane
  • The study, titled "ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids direct differentiation of the membrane phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells to potentiate osteogenesis," was supported by CPRIT (R1215), NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (1RO1GM114282) and the Volkswagen Foundation (93091). (tmc.edu)
  • Endoderm grafting experiments and ectopic basement membrane (BM) assembly suggest that both BM and non-BM factors contribute to cell survival. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • adult stem
  • Studying the role of PRC2 in adult stem cells has been hampered owing to the prenatal lethality of PRC2-subunit knockouts, but satellite cells (the primary muscle stem cells) provide a suitable system to investigate the function of PRC2. (biologists.org)
  • embryogenesis
  • 3 Culture of ESCs in planar formats (i.e. monolayer, co-culture) attempt to provide a more defined substrate for ESC attachment and uniform exposure to soluble media components, whereas the 3D aggregates of ESCs formed by EB culture techniques more accurately recapitulate the complex assembly of cell adhesions and intercellular signaling of early embryogenesis. (wiley.com)
  • inflammation
  • Such studies will probably yield insights into chronic inflammation and the myeloid cell accumulation seen in patients with type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders. (ucla.edu)
  • Type II diabetes and obesity, both metabolic diseases, are closely associated with chronic inflammation, which is induced by abnormal activation of blood cells," Shim said. (ucla.edu)
  • germ layers
  • 13 , 14 Similarly, ESCs injected into various tissue sites of adult organisms spontaneously form teratomas, benign tumors composed of a disorganized mix of cells from all three germ layers. (wiley.com)
  • Cardiomyocytes
  • hCMPCs do express progenitor markers and early cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factors, but not any of the myofibrillar genes before their differentiation into phenotypically mature cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • embryos
  • ESCs, isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocyst stage embryos, were first derived from mouse embryos, 1-3 followed by the derivation of primate 4 , 5 and human 6 , 7 ESC lines. (wiley.com)
  • extracellular
  • Based on its expertise in providing targeted extracellular signals with high specificity for the regulation of microtubule dynamics and associated proteins like DCAMKL1, Histide has created an innovative platform of nonmutagenic extracellular therapeutic agents called Cell Recoding Molecules TM (CRMs) with the capacity to dictate the precise commitment of various cell types. (businesswire.com)
  • Histide™ is a biotech intellectual property platform company pioneering a new class of nonmutagenic extracellular therapeutic agents called Cell Recoding Molecules™ (CRMs). (businesswire.com)
  • epigenetic
  • DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that determines whether or not a gene is expressed, guides stem cells as they transform from blank slates into specialized cells, according to Evangelos Kiskinis, PhD , assistant professor of Neurology in the Division of Neuromuscular Disease and senior author of the study. (northwestern.edu)
  • The investigators used a variety of cutting-edge technologies - including single cell RNA-Sequencing and a methylation-focused adaption of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, known as epigenetic editing - to create a series of stem cells that each lacked different enzymes that trigger DNA methylation. (northwestern.edu)
  • translational
  • Polyamines and polyamine-related enzymes have been implicated in bone development as global regulators of the transcriptional and translational activity of stem cells and pivotal transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • potential
  • Recoding Therapeutics based treatments will be the closest to natural cell physiology and thus have the potential to provide substantially improved safety and efficacy. (businesswire.com)
  • The power of these models has been widely discussed, but the potential pitfalls of stem cell differentiation in this research are less well described. (springer.com)