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  • ethical
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Human cloning has moved closer to reality, and even therapeutic cloning is fraught with ethical perils. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Information on presidential actions and legislative activities related to the ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning is provided, as well as relevant Web sites. (unt.edu)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • Upon this base of activities and relationships, GPI serves as a communications channel, helping to build the knowledge base needed for ethical and thoughtful policy-making in support of scientifically and medically worthy research and clinical translation in the broad field of stem cells and the even broader field of developmental biology. (nih.gov)
  • Here we want to emphasize a common theme that runs through this letter: the concept that the Final Guidelines should be regarded as a safe harbor , not as the only set of procedures by which applicants for NIH funding can establish that the derivation of hESCs proposed for use in research can meet the ethical requirements embodied in the Draft Guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • In vitro fertilization typically produces more embryos than required. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The Pope did not specifically condemn the use of embryos created initially to help women become pregnant -- in vitro fertilization -- if those embryos were no longer needed and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • On 10 March 1988, China's first baby conceived through human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), commonly referred to as a test-tube baby, was born at the Peking Hospital (PUTH) in Beijing. (asu.edu)
  • The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. (asu.edu)
  • Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • Dolly
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • In the simplest terms, the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep - somatic cell nuclear transplantation cloning - involves removing the nucleus of an egg and replacing it with the diploid nucleus of a somatic cell. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Research
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. (unt.edu)
  • With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • Today's decision relates only to the use of federal funds for research on existing stem cell lines derived in accordance with the criteria set forth above. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. (hindawi.com)
  • They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells research is recently reproposing the paradigmatic case of the reciprocal influence between science and ideological (e.g., political, religious, economic, and social) issues. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, an important question deals with the impact upon national regulation and social behaviours of the scientific community experts' advice regarding stem cells research and its exploitation for health care purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • In the end though the debate is quite a simple one, and is based on the value our representatives put on human life or in permitting scientific research at any cost. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • On the other hand proponents for change argue instead that embryos may have to be sacrificed for the sake of research which could lead to major breakthroughs in a host of diseases and ailments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The research was strictly limited to embryos which had been produced during the IVF program - a program intended to result in birth, but which were going to be destroyed anyway. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The current debate is about how the embryonic stem cells used in research are derived," he wrote. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • A further fear is that a green light now for embryonic cloning research will merely be a stepping stone towards a more open slather approach in future years. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • GPI is a not-for-profit organization formed in 2003 with the mission of promoting and defending stem cell research and its application in medicine to develop therapeutics and cures for many otherwise intractable diseases and disorders. (nih.gov)
  • GPI congratulates NIH on its tireless efforts over the past 35 years to achieve a position of global leadership in the field of human embryology through both extramurally funded and intramurally conducted human embryonic stem cell ( hESC ) and related medical research. (nih.gov)
  • With a touchy issue like embryonic stem cell research, our passions sometimes obscure reality. (blogspot.com)
  • Right now, though, let me say this: I believe today -- as I believed and stated in 2001, prior to the establishment of current policy -- that the federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • After all, principles are meant to stand the test of time -- even when applied to a field changing as rapidly as stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • Q: What is the effect of Frist's announcement of his support for the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research? (blogspot.com)
  • A: Conservatives who have been fighting federal funding of embryonic stem cell research concede Frist's announcement was a major blow to their cause. (blogspot.com)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of May 2019 [update] . (wikipedia.org)
  • An appendix is presented that shows an overview of the science of embryonic stem cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reports on the approval given by the bioethics committee of Japan's Science and Technology Council for research involving the use of embryonic stem cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Discusses the government's delay in deciding whether to permit research into the therapeutic use of human embryonic stem cells in Great Britain. (ebscohost.com)
  • The author reflects on U.S. President Barack Obama's executive order to lift limitations on federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article focuses on a research that develop synthetic variants of the Grb2 SH2 domain of proteins, which bound specifically to one single phosphotyrosine motif, in mouse embryonic stem cells using affinity clamp approach. (ebscohost.com)
  • Focuses on human embryonic stem (ES) cells research. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reports that London, England-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics has released a report stating that research on human embryonic stem cells for the treatment of disease should be allowed. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Case for Stem Cell Research. (ebscohost.com)
  • An essay is presented on the delay of the progress of embryonic stem cell research for the treatment of various diseases due to debates regarding the use of human embryos in the research. (ebscohost.com)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Scope: This document describes when research activities involving human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human embryonic germ cells derived from fetal tissue , or hESC- or germ cell-derived test articles are considered human subjects research and what regulatory controls apply to that research. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There is simply no case for supporting research in hES cells any longer. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • differentiation
  • Thus, differentiation of ESCs recapitulates the earliest stages of human development, and understanding the gene regulatory networks in these cells will enhance our knowledge of the regulation of the earliest stages of development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • On the practical side, these topics range from the problems of deriving human embryonic stem cells and driving their differentiation along specific lineages, regulating their development into mature cells, and bringing stem cell therapy to clinical trials. (springer.com)
  • Third, the directed differentiation of those patient-specific pluripotent cells into the cell type relevant to their disease. (stembook.org)
  • involves
  • And using the cloning technique is controversial, because it involves creating, then destroying, a human embryo. (bioethics.net)
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • 2001
  • Newer technologies for cell derivation have overcome these problems, but federally funded researchers can't use them since they were created after August 2001. (dartmouth.edu)
  • President's Council o
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • Researchers
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • Had it been the latter (a technique almost universally condemned as unethical), the researchers could have attempted to initiate a pregnancy by implanting the cloned embryos in a womb. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Stem cells have raised tremendous expectations among the medical doctors, researchers, patients, and the general public due to their capacity to differentiate into a broad range of cell types. (medsci.org)
  • Some leading U.S. stem cell researchers moved to other countries. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Researchers have discovered that chemotherapy provides the perfect backdrop for 'sleeping' cancer to churn out deadly cancer stem cells. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Researchers found that modifying blood stem cells to raise their levels of a T cell-blocking protein called PD-L1 reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • In a series of experiments during mid 1930s, a team of researchers in New York helped establish that bacteria of the species Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans, and in infants can cause toxoplasmosis, a disease that inflames brains, lungs, and hearts, and that can organisms that have it. (asu.edu)
  • nucleus
  • The most critical factor is epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus from its differentiated status into the totipotent state of the early embryo. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The following article reviews the present knowledge on the epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus, with emphasis on DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and telomere length restoration in bovine development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)
  • Serious doubts have been raised about the sufficiency of those lines, since they have been exposed to potential contamination by mouse feeder cells. (washingtontimes.com)
  • President Bush had promised the availability of more than 60 stem cell lines, but by 2004 it was clear that many fewer were eligible. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The second advantage of autologous ES cells over existing lines concerns the ability to create effective disease models. (stembook.org)
  • It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both cases, the egg is allowed to develop into a hollow ball with inner cell mass , the future embryo, which is harvested and destroyed to create hES cell lines. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Bovine
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • experiments
  • This chronology also addresses subsequent reports of other cloning experiments, including the first one using human cells. (unt.edu)
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • diseases
  • Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases," said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology. (bioethics.net)
  • Health care professionals have long been excited by the potential that such cells have for treating a wide range of diseases. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Cell death and degeneration cause some of the most serious diseases still facing us-diabetes, Parkinson's, and a host of diseases of aging. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Because stem cells have the potential to generate fresh, healthy cells of nearly any type, there is interest in exploring their use to treat and cure various diseases. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • In 1908, Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia to describe a group of diseases that cause changes in thought processes and behavior in humans as well as difficulties relating to the world. (asu.edu)
  • The regulatory regimes of USA and EU based their false claim that the cloned animals are true clones on the baseless assumption that the mitochondrial genomes do not count when in fact the mitochondria play crucial roles in in a number of diseases of the nervous system, in cell suicide and in aging. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • genomics
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • potential
  • Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. (hindawi.com)
  • Another Nobel Laureate , James D. Watson , publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. (jove.com)
  • If the definition is used from the Stearns "ban", the product of cloning would just be a "cell" (an oocyte), rather than a single-cell living human organism -- thus protecting no "products" of human cloning techdniques. (lifeissues.net)
  • Thus
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • epigenetic
  • Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). (jove.com)
  • likewise
  • When the cloned female is mated to a cloned male the offspring are all heteroplasmic and likewise, when the cloned female is mated with a normal male the offspring will always be heteroplasmic. (i-sis.org.uk)