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  • lineages
  • Since stem cells stand at the top of cell lineages, they can help minimize this accumulation by maintaining a high-quality genome and periodically refreshing a pool of cells that accumulate mutations at a higher rate but that are only transiently present in the tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cycling stem cells regularly generate progeny, which subsequently exit the niche and pass through the "common origin of differentiation" around position +5, where they commit toward the various individual lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the next 10 years, over 50% of patients presenting haematological abnormalities will have developed pancytopenia, defined as abnormalities in two or more blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In this end, stem cells undergo an asymmetric cell division during which only one of the two daughter cells differentiates. (springer.com)
  • After 4 cycles of Ld, eligible patients will undergo stem cell mobilization and collection with standard-of-care cyclophosphamide and Neupogen (G-CSF) or with plerixafor G-CSF. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This implies that transit cells can under certain circumstances behave like actual stem cells while they undergo maturation under other conditions. (biologists.org)
  • One possibility is for stem cells to be intrinsically more resistant to mutation accrual (for example, because of a reduction in metabolic activity that lowers oxidative stress [ 8 ], or because of more vigorous scavenging of reactive oxygen species), or to undergo more active or less error-prone DNA damage repair - likely at the cost of increased metabolic expenditures or slow DNA replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order for a cell to become cancerous it must undergo a significant number of alterations to its DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Among those affected, the majority develops cancer, most often acute myelogenous leukemia, and 90% develop bone marrow failure (the inability to produce blood cells) by age 40. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As FA is now known to affect DNA repair, specifically nonhomologous end joining, and given the current knowledge about dynamic cell division in the bone marrow, finding patients are more likely to develop bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndromes, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not surprising. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated SP cells in bone marrow obtained from patients with acute myeloid leukemia, suggesting that these cells might be candidate leukemic stem cells, and recent studies have found a SP of tumor progenitor cells in human solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In 2011 while at Kyoto University he succeeded in differentiating in vitro primordial germ cells from male mouse ES and iPS cells and induced sperm from these cells following a 2-step protocol to produce healthy pups by in vitro fertilisation. (focusonreproduction.eu)
  • Subsequent studies revealed that the dye can be used to monitor lymphocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo, due to the progressive halving of CFSE fluorescence within daughter cells following each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • examined the effects of epigenetic modifications on the chromatin structure and the modulation of these epigenetic markers during stem cell differentiation through in vitro differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone modifications of H3K9 position show a decrease in di- and tri-methylation of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and had a gradual increase in methylation during the six-day time course of in vitro differentiation, which indicated that there is a global increase of inactive heterochromatin levels at this histone mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from which they originate. (springer.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the remarkable potential to differentiate into many different cells types in the body. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • This ability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate and form various cell types led to the field of regenerative medicine, promising to design healthy tissue in the lab to replace old or diseased counterparts. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Especially, CDK2 emerged as central molecule in controlling self‐renewal, cell‐fate decision and DNA damage response. (theses.cz)
  • Cheng and Leblond used autoradiography of phagosomes to track the fate of cells at the base of the crypts, and determined that slender cells interspersed among Paneth cells at the crypt base could give rise to all of the other cell types that constituted the intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewing and differentiating to the desired fate depending on its position within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the histone code hypothesis, distinct covalent histone modifications can lead to functionally distinct chromatin structures that influence the fate of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The slight rebound in each of these marks allows for further differentiation to occur by allowing another opportunity to decrease the markers once again, bringing the cell closer to its desired fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there is also an increase throughout the six-day period in H3K9me, a marker for active heterochromatin, once differentiation occurs it is concluded that the formation of heterochromatin occurs as the cell is differentiated into its desired fate making the cell inactive to prevent further differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate. (wikipedia.org)
  • By continuous intravital imaging in mice, researchers were able to explore the structure of the stem cell niche and to obtain the fate of individual stem cells (SCs) and their progeny over time in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • slow cycl
  • Computational simulations of mutation accumulation characterize a tradeoff between fast development and low mutation accumulation, and show that slow-cycling stem cells allow for an advantageous compromise to be reached. (biomedcentral.com)
  • functional
  • One of the major difficulties in considering stem cells is that they are defined in terms of their functional capabilities which can only be assessed by testing the abilities of the cells, which itself may alter their characteristics during the assay procedure: a situation similar to the uncertainty principle in physics. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells may divide without maturation while cells approaching functional competence may mature but do not divide. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, transit cells divide and mature showing intermediate properties between stem cells and mature functional cells. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • If such context-dependent interactions exist between the manipulation and measurement process and the challenged stem cells, the question of, for example, the number of stem cells, in a tissue has to be posed in a new way. (biologists.org)
  • The need to describe this transition process and the variable coupling between proliferation and maturation leads us to formulate a spiral model of cell and tissue organisation. (biologists.org)
  • It was so fascinating and exciting for me to see that it is possible to isolate, analyze and culture living cells from such a tiny amount of tissue, and that the cells survive such a long and harsh procedure. (biologists.org)
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) are biopolyesters reported to provide favorable microenvironments for cell culture and possess potential for tissue engineering applications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assessment of stem cell/biomaterial combinations for stem cell-based tissue engineering. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell and Tissue Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • Mutations involving the FANCA gene are associated with many somatic and congenital defects, primarily involving phenotypic variations of Fanconi anaemia, aplastic anaemia, and forms of cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-137 is located on human chromosome 1p22 and has been implicated to act as a tumor suppressor in several cancer types including colorectal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma via cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-137 is embedded within a CpG island, a genomic region containing high frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and is reported to be frequently silenced by promoter hyper-methylation in many tumour types, including colorectal, gastric, breast and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of promoter methylation in oral rinses of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck showed that miR-137 methylation is associated with female gender and inversely associated with body mass index. (wikipedia.org)
  • subpopulations
  • Hence this discovery may represent an important opportunity to design CDK inhibitor drugs to uniquely target subpopulations of cells within these aggressive neural tumours. (impactjournals.com)
  • This model has received support from studies showing subpopulations of blood cells harboring initiating but not late somatic mutations in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and AML. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • The DiI+/SCC population, showed only a partial overlap with the CSC markers CD24 + /CD44 + , CD133 + and ALDH but they survived chemotherapeutic treatment, and were able to recreate the initial heterogeneous tumor cell population. (springer.com)
  • By the use of fluorescent antibodies against different lymphocyte cell surface markers it is also possible to follow the proliferation behaviour of different lymphocyte subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A side population (SP) in flow cytometry is a sub-population of cells that is distinct from the main population on the basis of the markers employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • By definition, cells in a side population have distinguishing biological characteristics (for example, they may exhibit stem cell-like characteristics), but the exact nature of this distinction depends on the markers used in identifying the side population. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. (springer.com)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • GS cells in the G1 phase are more efficient than those in the S/G2-M phase in colonizing the seminiferous tubules of adult mice. (go.jp)
  • Adult stem cells remain in an undifferentiated state throughout adult life. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that correct culturing conditions of adult stem cells needs to be improved so that adult stem cells can maintain their stemness over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • An intricate cell machinery maintains the genome by detecting and repairing both DNA lesions and replication errors [ 1 ], strongly suggesting that minimization of mutation accumulation is an important performance objective for cells and organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cells can maintain a high-quality genome in essentially two ways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold great promise in many biomedical applications including cell replacement therapy, drug screening and developmental studies. (theses.cz)
  • For example, in human immortalized lymphoblasts and leukaemia cells, FA proteins are readily detectable by immunoprecipitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alteration is believed to cause inefficient processing of miR-137 to its mature form, and serve as a mechanism to downregulate miR-137 expression in various human melanoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • further showed that miR-137 targets Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42), a well-known member of the Rho GTPase family found be upregulated in many human cancer types such as colorectal, testicular and breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Cumulative myelosuppression is the main limiting factor for administration of repeated cycles of chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • We present a case series of five pediatric patients with high-risk solid malignancies who received small split peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) doses of less than 1 × 10 6 /kg CD34 + cells obtained after a single leukapheresis procedure and given after repeated cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Using split doses of PBSC prevented prolonged neutropenia after repeated cycles of submyeloablative chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Cumulative myelosuppression is the main limiting factor for administration of repeated cycles of intensive chemotherapy such as ICE when patients can tolerate only a limited number of full-dose chemotherapy cycles even with the use of growth factors [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients required multiple leukapheresis procedures to provide more than 2 × 10 6 /kg of CD34 + cells per cycle to support several chemotherapy cycles. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we report a retrospective analysis of our clinical experience where we used split doses of less than 1 × 10 6 /kg CD34 + cells obtained after one leukapheresis procedure to support repeated cycles of chemotherapy in pediatric patients with solid tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • The patients received repeated cycles of ICE (ifosfamide 9000 mg/m 2 , carboplatin 500 mg/m 2 , and etoposide 500 mg/m 2 ) chemotherapy supported by autologous PBSC. (hindawi.com)
  • Three patients had a single leukapheresis procedure following 2nd to 4th cycle of chemotherapy and G-CSF stimulation, and the product was split into four equal doses. (hindawi.com)
  • In two patients (patients 2 and 4, Table 1 ), we used PBSCs obtained after leukapheresis procedures that did not collect required numbers of CD34 + cells to support myeloablative chemotherapy and otherwise would be discarded. (hindawi.com)
  • The PBSCs were reinfused 24 hours after completion of consolidation chemotherapy cycles followed by G-CSF or GM-CSF stimulation. (hindawi.com)
  • We compared these data to induction chemotherapy cycles administered without PBSC support in the same patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Normal cells are more able than cancer cells to repair damage from chemotherapy drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to try improving efficacy of the [R]-CHOEP, some researchers tried to escalate chemotherapy to very high doses, requiring autologic stem cell support in each cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nordic Protocol (Maxi-CHOP and High Dose Cytarabine) for Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) http://www.macmillan.org.uk/cancerinformation/cancertreatment/treatmenttypes/chemotherapy/combinationregimen/r-chop.aspx New Combo Replaces CHOP for Lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parson's lab at King's College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinson's. (biologists.org)
  • characteristics
  • Most attempts to better understand the characteristics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma have focused on studying gene and protein expression profiles of total samples of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and have not taken into account the heterogeneity of cells within a particular tumor. (springer.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of CSCs is under debate, because many studies found no cells with their specific characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • The FA phenotype can be interpreted as a premature aging of stem cells, DNA damages being the driving force of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • For mammalian cells, the maintenance of cytosine methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases and any disruption to these methyltransferases will cause a lethal phenotype to the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • aged mice
  • This imbalance in quiescent versus activating signals likely promoted a prolonged anagen-like hair follicle state after the second catagen, which exhausted stem cells over time ultimately resulting in hair loss in aged mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • tumors
  • Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle includes four discrete phases: Gap 1 (G1), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M). During the G1 phase, which is known as the first interphase, the cell synthesizes proteins that are needed for DNA replication and continuous growth. (springer.com)
  • transgenic mice
  • More recently modern genetics techniques, primarily using transgenic mice, have been used to identify genes that are specifically expressed or highly enriched in the intestinal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Our findings shed light both on design principles that underlie the role of stem cells in delaying aging and on evolutionary forces that shape stem-cell gene regulatory networks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was tempting to study the role of gene expression dynamics in carcinogenesis not only in cultured cells but also in multi-cellular organisms such as animals based on availability of published gene expression profiling data. (omicsonline.org)
  • Stem cell homeostasis is maintained through epigenetic mechanisms that are highly dynamic in regulating the chromatin structure as well as specific gene transcription programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • During embryonic development, various niche factors act on embryonic stem cells to alter gene expression, and induce their proliferation or differentiation for the development of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • identified a list of 32 genes targeted by miR-137 by cross-referencing the global gene expression analysis of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells after transfection of miR-137 with the list of predicted miR-137 targets via miRecords database. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • FANCA is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in all cells with subcellular localisation in primarily nucleus but also cytoplasm corresponding with its putative caretaker role in DNA damage-response pathways, and FA complex formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • However, before the full potential of these cells can be applied, we must deeply understand the biology of these cells. (theses.cz)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • The theory of cell attractors initially incorporated the original concept of epigenetics from Dr. Waddington [ 3 ] and integrated systems biology. (omicsonline.org)
  • Immunology and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • However, because it is neither radioactive nor myelotoxic at labeling concentrations, it is widely preferred for in vivo studies of cancer cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)