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  • vitro
  • For the current clinical treatment, the expansion of cells in vitro has been a promising alternative method for the bone tissue engineering strategy. (nus.edu.sg)
  • and 3) for the bioreactors application, cell seeding method can play a significant role supporting the progress of the in vitro cell culture. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In vitro, in the presence of VEGF(165), hAC133(+) cells only adopted a venous and microvascular EC phenotype, while hMAPCs differentiated into both arterial and venous ECs, possibly because hMAPCs expressed significantly more sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its receptors as well as Notch 1 and 3 receptors and some of their ligands. (cun.es)
  • These results represent the first demonstration of adult stem cells with the potential to be differentiated into different types of ECs in vitro and in vivo and provide a useful human model to study arteriovenous specification. (cun.es)
  • year
  • Although stem cell research won't come up again this year, Isakson said the Senate must continue to address it and keep the United States in the forefront of such promising research. (senate.gov)
  • Vitro
  • The word 'niche' can be in reference to the in vivo or in vitro stem-cell microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • France prohibits reproductive cloning and embryo creation for research purposes, but enacted laws (with a sunset provision expiring in 2009) to allow scientists to conduct stem cell research on imported a large amount of embryos from in vitro fertilization treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be induced by modifying the growth medium when stem cells are cultured in vitro or transplanting them to an organ of the body different from the one they were originally isolated from. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are mitogens that promote neural progenitor and stem cell growth in vitro, though other factors synthesized by the neural progenitor and stem cell populations are also required for optimal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo, known as the morula , are totipotent, able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects. (slideshare.net)
  • Following the blastocyst stage, the tissues of the embryo start to form and the cells become multipotent. (slideshare.net)
  • Plant stem cells serve as the origin of plant vitality, as they maintain themselves while providing a steady supply of precursor cells to form differentiated tissues and organs in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant stem cells are also characterized by their location in specialized structures called meristematic tissues, which are located in root apical meristem (RAM), shoot apical meristem (SAM), and vascular system ((pro)cambium or vascular meristem. (wikipedia.org)
  • While plant stem cell exists in the meristematic tissues of plant, callus is obtained as a temporary response to cure wounds in somatic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are able to incorporate into other renal tissues, and was able to repeatedly form spheres in 3D cultures, and clonal analysis also exhibited its multipotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of st. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissue
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are found in organ tissue and have the capacity to produce specialized cell types for that particular organ. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Researchers at the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory have successfully isolated adult stem cells from the tissue of the mouse utricle. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Possible mechanisms of recovery include: Generation of heart muscle cells Stimulation of growth of new blood vessels to repopulate damaged heart tissue Secretion of growth factors Assistance via some other mechanism It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It constitutes a basic unit of tissue physiology, integrating signals that mediate the balanced response of stem cells to the needs of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet further treatments using stem cells could potentially be developed due to their ability to repair extensive tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are generally limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient's own stored stem cells are then transfused into his/her bloodstream, where they replace destroyed tissue and resume the patient's normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the body, tissue homeostasis is established and maintained by resident tissue-specific adult stem cells (aSCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantifying the size, mechanical inhomogeneity, and biological response among tissue micro-domains is important because this is the length scale that governs cell mechanotransduction, and therefore regulation of tissue homeostasis and disease progression. (upenn.edu)
  • Tissue engineering, and particularly those approaches based on autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is evolving as a clinically relevant technique to promote cartilage regeneration. (upenn.edu)
  • transplants
  • Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease , myelodysplastic syndrome , neuroblastoma , lymphoma , Ewing's sarcoma , desmoplastic small round cell tumor , chronic granulomatous disease , Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • ES cell cultures have been grown for more than two years in the laboratory as immortal cell lines, but embryonic germ cellcultures can only survive about 70 to 80 cell divisions. (slideshare.net)
  • During foetal development gonocytes develop from primordial germ cells and following this SSCs develop from gonocytes in the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is another molecule crucial for the regulation of stem cell renewal and is expressed in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spermatogenesis, c-KIT is expressed in primordial germ cells, spermatogonia, and in primordial oocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also expressed in the primordial germ cells of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCF is expressed along the pathways that the germ cells use to reach their terminal destination in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A new report published in the Ear, Nose & Throat Journal (October, 2004) describes the significant progress being made in the growth of cochlear hair cells generated from stem cells in mice. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In mice A Single (As) spermatogonia are capable of creating 2 separate daughter SSCs when they divide or the daughter cells can join and form A Paired (Apr) spermatogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice with SCF or c-Kit mutations have severe defects in the production of mast cells, having less than 1% of the normal levels of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of MKPC into mice post-ischemic injury saw the MKPC regenerating different cell lineages and was able to regenerate renal function and enhanced survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close proximity and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cell controversy is the consideration of the ethics of research involving the development, use, and destruction of human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all stem cell research involves the human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the use of the technique on human embryos led to more widespread controversy as criticism of the technique now began from the wider non-scientific public who debated the moral ethics of questions concerning research involving human embryonic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • The proliferative potential of the two groups was unequal and correlated with the cells' location (central or border). (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics of limbal stem include slow turnover rate, high proliferative potential, clonogenicity, multipotency, expression of stem cell markers, and the ability to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternately, it was also reported that differentiated tubular epithelial cells are the driving mechanism for regeneration after injury, using proliferative expansion as the mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell's properties include having a normal karyotype, maintaining high telomerase activity, and exhibiting remarkable long-term proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former requires differentiation of endothelial cells from hemangioblasts and then the further organization into a primary capillary network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble and transmembrane SCF is produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). (wikipedia.org)
  • A blastocyst is an early stage embryo-approximately four to five days old in humans and consisting of 50-150 cells. (slideshare.net)
  • Stem cell laws are the law rules, and policy governance concerning the sources, research, and uses in treatment of stem cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, neural progenitor and stem cells have been isolated from various areas of the adult central nervous system, including non-neurogenic areas, such as the spinal cord, and from various species including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis , wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other times, the donor cells can begin to make immune cells that attack the recipient's body. (kidshealth.org)
  • The stem cells are separated and collected and the rest of the blood is returned to the donor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Several days before the donation, the donor is given a daily shot of filgrastim, which causes the bone marrow to create more stem cells into the blood. (shsu.edu)
  • The donor might be told to take iron supplements until the number of red blood cells returns to normal. (shsu.edu)
  • Research
  • Stem cell research" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the journal, see Stem Cell Research (journal) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ISSCR advocates worldwide for ethical stem cell research and its translation to the clinic. (isscr.org)
  • Find the resources and connections you need to further drive your career and skills in the ever-changing and exciting field of stem cell research. (isscr.org)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is an independent nonprofit organization and the voice of the stem cell research community. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR was founded in 2002 to foster the exchange of information on stem cell research and now claims more than 4,100 members worldwide. (isscr.org)
  • Accelerating cures for the major diseases of our time through stem cell research. (nyscf.org)
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation combines the depth of a highly focused research institute with the breadth of a wide-ranging philanthropic organization. (nyscf.org)
  • Since its establishment in 2005, NYSCF has invested over $200 million in stemcell research and continues to conduct the most advanced stem cell research internationally, both in its own laboratory in New York City, and also in collaboration with major medical research and leading academic institutions around the world. (nyscf.org)
  • Stem cell research in the United States remains at the center of controversy and was a hotly debated topic during the recent election. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • There is much more research to be done toward developing clinically applied techniques for the treatment of hearing loss with stem cells. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease , among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration , such as in Parkinson's , Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , and Alzheimer's disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes them less suitable for establishing cell lines for research. (slideshare.net)
  • Stem Cell Reports is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering research into stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the official journal of the International Society for Stem Cell Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many decades, stem cells have played an important role in medical research, beginning in 1868 when Ernst Haeckel first used the phrase to describe the fertilized egg which eventually gestates into an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great levels of success and potential have been realized from research using adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Political leaders are debating how to regulate and fund research studies that involve the techniques used to remove the embryo cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has restrictive policies for stem cell research, but a 2008 law authorizes "the use of imported stem cell lines produced before May 1, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United Kingdom is one of the leaders in stem cell research, in the opinion of Lord Sainsbury, Science and Innovation Minister for the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new £10 million stem cell research centre has been announced at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the derivation of such cell types from ESs is not without obstacles and hence current research is focused on overcoming these barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journal was established in 2007 and focuses on stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential of stem cells for healing and disease prevention in all fields of medicine is tremendous and has revolutionized the high-tech biomedical research. (springer.com)
  • tumor cell
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic mouse
  • Specially M Wnt cells, cloned from a spontaneous mammary tumor from a MMTV Wnt 1 transgenic mouse, ow a senchy mal morphology, stably convey stem cell markers Manti Te'o Chargers Jersey , and swiftly create claudin reduced maArlen Booth s Cocaine Coma provides an important social mentary, exploring many societal problems while grounding itself in a story of an ordinary, middle class Chicago family to which anyone could relate. (xobor.com)
  • gene
  • Glowing stem cells indicate the FMR1 gene has been successfully turned on in cells from patients with fragile X syndrome. (wisc.edu)
  • In patients with fragile X, the FMR1 is silenced (turned off), so cells can no longer use the gene as a blueprint to make the fragile X mental retardation protein, FMRP. (wisc.edu)
  • Another challenge researchers face is being able to tell when a particular gene is turned on in cells. (wisc.edu)
  • It would take far too long to apply individual drugs, collect the cells being tested and use traditional methods to check whether a specific gene is on or off in those cells. (wisc.edu)
  • Much like the warning light on an induction cooking range that tells users the range is on, reporter cell lines have an easy-to-measure component that tells researchers when a particular gene is turned on. (wisc.edu)
  • You can put a drug on these reporter cells and if the gene is turned on by that drug then you will get a bright luminescence signal," says Bhattacharyya. (wisc.edu)
  • However, the biggest advantage of reporter cell lines is they can be used in high-throughput, automated systems to efficiently test whether any of hundreds of thousands of drugs can turn on the gene of interest without harming the cell. (wisc.edu)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • reporter
  • One way to do that is to engineer what is called a reporter cell line. (wisc.edu)
  • Meng Li, a postdoctoral fellow supervised by Zhao and Bhattacharyya, used a technique called CRISPR-Cas9 to precisely position a reporter in the genomes of stem cells derived from individuals with fragile X. The reporter is a highly sensitive luciferase enzyme engineered from the DNA of a deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris . (wisc.edu)
  • protein
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • begin
  • In order to compensate for the constant neutralized state inside the stomach, the cells in the stomach lining begin to secrete more acid which results in higher than normal acid levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • focus
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • surface
  • Ultralight signals (less than 1 sec and less than 1 kg) are detected by mechanoreceptors on the surface of the periodontal and periosteal cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Seeds are obovate, narrowly winged at the apex and acute at the base, pale brown, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the tegument cell radial walls, which give the surface a silky appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • longer
  • peduncle between 3.5 and 10 centimetres (1.4 and 3.9 in), glabrous and minutely glandular to densely velvety pubescent with intermixed longer patent trichomes like those of the stems. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected by cerebral blood flow in the activated cortical tissue and send the data to a computer, which then calculates the ratio of red to infrared light and translates it into a visual signal of corresponding to oxygenation level on a graphical interface the patient can see. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, we confird that mammary tumors remarkably enriched in breast cancer stem cells have heightened sensitivity to the anti most cancers effects of CR. (xobor.com)
  • Journal
  • Eight medical organizations and a bioethics journal recognize the independent link - that abortion leaves a woman with more cancer-vulnerable cells than she had before she became pregnant. (pfli.org)
  • The Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)