• The phage is a spiroplasmal virus of morphologic group 1 (SpV1), isolated from Spiroplasma citri strain R8A2 (SpV1-R8A2) subclone B (SpV1-R8A2 B). SpV1 viruses are classified by their naked rods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, SpV1-R8A2 B infects S. citri, originally found on the Morocco strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction enzyme SciNI, with the cutting site 5' GCGC / 3' CGCG, can be found in S. citri. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a high frequency of SpV1 natural infection found in Spiroplasma strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MycoSEQ™ Mycoplasma Detection Assay, based on real-time PCR and Power SYBR® Green detection technology, is designed for the routine screening and detection of Mycoplasma and other closely related species such as Acholeplasma laidlawii and Spiroplasma citri. (thermofisher.com)
  • Intensive bioinformatics analysis was utilized to design amplification primers and reaction conditions to allow comprehensive detection of known Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species (Table 1), while avoiding detection of related bacterial species. (thermofisher.com)
  • The standardized methodology was applied to Mycoplasma arginini, M. hyorhinis, M. orale, Spiroplasma citri and Acholeplasma laidlawii. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fourteen viruses have been identified: six in Acholeplasma, four in Mycoplasma and four in Spiroplasma species. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Ribotyping has been successfully applied to the phylogenetic analysis and detection of species in the genus Spiroplasma ( 21 ) and in the closely related genus Mycoplasma ( 51 , 48 ), whose members are even smaller than spiroplasmas. (asm.org)
  • mycoides, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Spiroplasma citri were included in the analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism , parasitic lifestyle, fried-egg colony morphology and small genome of other Mollicutes , but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike Mycoplasma . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Spiroplasma citri is a bacterium species and the causative agent of Citrus stubborn disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiroplama citri , the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, is a bacterium of the class Mollicutes and is transmitted by phloem-feeding leafhopper vectors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • S. citri is the causative agent of Citrus stubborn disease on plants of the genus Citrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s, Joseph-Marie Bové and colleagues characterized Spiroplasma citri , the pathogen responsible for stubborn disease, which is vectored by leafhoppers and severely affects citrus species, notably orange and grapefruit. (inra.fr)
  • Genome sequence resource for Spiroplasma citri, strain CC-2, associated with citrus stubborn disease in California. (usda.gov)
  • 2008 - Pcr-based Detection Of Spiroplasma Citri Associated With Citrus Stubborn Disease - Yokomi, R.k. (cnr.it)
  • Studies of symptomatology and detection of Spiroplasma citri, a causal agent of stubborn disease, observed on citrus trees in the East Mediterranean area. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Foreign Title: Doğu akdeniz bölgesi'nde turunçgil ağaçlarında gözlenen stubborn hastalığı etmeni Spiroplasma citri 'nin simptomoloji ve tanılanması üzerinde araștırmalar. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Significant statistical difference was observed in the percentage of viable cells in comparison to ethanol treatment for A. laidlawii in CFDA and in both markers for M. gallisepticum, M. hyorhinis and S. citri. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparing the insect-transmissible GII3 and non-insect-transmissible 44 strains revealed that adherence to and entry into Ciha-1 cells of S. citri 44 were significantly less efficient than those of S. citri GII3. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There is a high frequency of SpV1 natural infection found in Spiroplasma strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole genome sequence of five strains of Spiroplasma citri isolated from different host plants and its leafhopper vector. (usda.gov)
  • Several new strains of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma were discovered, including ones divergent from any reported to date. (genetics.org)
  • Spiroplasma virus, SpV4, is a small, non-enveloped virus that infects the helical mollicute Spiroplasma 4 exhibits several similarities to the Chlamydia phage, Chp1, and the Coliphages α3, φK, G4 and φX All of these viruses are members of the viruses have isometric capsids with T = 1 icosahedral Cited by: Virus-like particles of three morphologic groups have been detected by electron microscopy in 90% of spiroplasma strains. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a cell line for this leafhopper species and of its successful infection by the insect-transmissible strain S. citri GII3. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Spiroplasma are intracellular organisms with helical morphology and a small genome (0.78-2.2 Mb) comprising 38 species isolated from insects, crustaceans, and plants ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The first isolated species ( S. citri ) was described in 1973 ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that the infectious agent responsible for TSE disease cannot be a spiroplasma or any other eubacterial species. (asm.org)
  • S. citri was officially recognized as a new species by the international scientific community in 1973. (inra.fr)
  • Typically they grow well at 30°C, but not at 37°C. A few species, notably Spiroplasma mirum , grow well at 37°C (human body temperature), and cause cataracts and neurological damage in suckling mice. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The best studied species of spiroplasmas are Spiroplasma citri , the causative agent of Citrus Stuborn Disease, and Spiroplasma kunkelii , the causative agent of Corn Stunt Disease. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2007) have responded to this challenge with the isolation of a spiroplasma species from scrapie-infected tissue, grown it in cell-free culture, and demonstrated its infectivity in ruminants. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Of these, 19 species were infected by Wolbachia while only 3 species had Spiroplasma. (genetics.org)
  • The new Spiroplasma species is seen in BCE cultures by TEM. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • The isolation of Spiroplasma species from eyes of scrapie-affected sheep confirms the consistent association of spiroplasma with the TSEs, and the concentration of spiroplasma in sheep eyes provides a resource for future research studies. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Based on results from this study and previously published data, strain TN-1(T) (= ATCC ) (group XVIII) is designated the type strain of a new spiroplasma species, Spiroplasma litorale. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Use of immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy to study distribution of the bacterium corn stunt spiroplasma in vector leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and in host plants. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bentley, J. K., Veneti, Z., Heraty, J. & Hurst, G. D. D. The pathology of embryo death caused by the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium in Drosophila nebulosa . (nature.com)
  • Schulenburg, J. H. G. v. D. & Majerus, M. E. N. (2000): The butterfly Danaus chrysippus is infected by a male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These results, indicating that fructose and glucose utilization were not equally involved in pathogenicity, were consistent with biochemical data showing that, in the presence of both sugars, S. citri used fructose preferentially. (apsnet.org)
  • From these data, a hypothetical model was proposed to establish the relationship between fructose utilization by the spiroplasmas present in the phloem sieve tubes and glucose accumulation in the leaves of S. citri infected plants. (apsnet.org)
  • Fructose utilization and phytopathogenicity of Spiroplasma citri. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2000). Fructose operon mutants of Spiroplasma citri . (tcdb.org)
  • Transmission of the scm1 -disrupted mutant to periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) plants through injection into the leafhopper vector ( Circulifer haematoceps ) showed that the motility mutant multiplied in the insects and was efficiently transmitted to plants, in which it induced symptoms similarly to the wild-type S. citri strain. (asm.org)
  • Successful transmission of Spiroplasma citri by its leafhopper vector requires a specific interaction between the spiroplasma surface and the insect cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Spiroplasma citri , a plant pathogenic mollicute: Relationships with its two hosts, the plant and the leafhopper vector. (ac.ir)
  • spiroplasma citri is a cell wall-less, plant pathogenic bacteria that colonizes two distinct hosts, the leafhopper vector and the host plant. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Pathogenicity of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma citri on Periwinkle. (chemeurope.com)
  • Single-step and nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were employed to determine the presence of the phloem-limited bacterial pathogens ' Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'(CLas), phytoplasma and Spiroplasma citri . (ac.ir)
  • madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Beet leafhoppers ( Circulifer tenellus ) that had been confined on Spiroplasma citri BR3-infected turnip plants were caged with seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotypes Lansburg Erecta, Columbia, and Niedersans) for 4 7 days. (apsnet.org)
  • Its causal organism is Diaporthe citri . (com.pk)
  • Spiroplasma develop a commensal, pathogenic, or mutualist pathogen-host relationship. (cdc.gov)
  • Spiroplasmas were cultured from 34 of 42 exposed plants, and the protein profiles of reisolated spiroplasmas in polyacrylamide gels were indistinguishable from those of cultured S. citri BR3. (apsnet.org)
  • These results suggest that the spiroplasmal motility may not be essential for pathogenicity and that, more broadly, the S. citri oriC plasmids can be considered promising tools for specific gene disruption by promoting homologous recombination in S. citri , a mollicute which probably lacks a functional RecA protein. (asm.org)
  • Plasmids pSci1-5 code for eight different S. citri adhesion-related proteins (ScARPs) that are homologous to the previously described protein P89 and the S. kunkelii SkARP1. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Characterization of Spiroplasma citri adhesion related protein SARP1, which contains a domain of a novel family designated sarpin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 2015. Heterologous expression and processing of the flavescence dorée phytoplasma variable membrane protein VmpA in Spiroplasma citri . (inra.fr)
  • differential expression of spiroplasma citri surface protein genes in the plant and insect hosts. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. (ufl.edu)
  • XAC ( Xanthomonas axenopodis P.V Citri ) enter through stomata in the leaf canopy when stomata open XAC enter the stomata wound 5 directly expose mesophyll tissues due cultural practices and insects. (com.pk)
  • The genome of S. citri GII3-3X is characterized by abundant extrachromosomal elements. (beds.ac.uk)
  • There is evidence that shows, in the partially sequenced S. citri genome, at least 20.5% of CDS are phage-related, while 47.2% of CDS are of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. (ufl.edu)
  • Spiroplasma shares the simple metabolism, parasitic lifestyle, fried-egg colony morphology and small genome of other Mollicutes, but has a distinctive helical morphology, unlike has a spiral shape and moves in a corkscrew motion. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Phylogenetic positions of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and Spiroplasma kunkelii as inferred from multiple sets of concatenated core housekeeping proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Spiroplasma kunkelii causes corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in the Americas. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • CaLas has a global distribution and can be transmitted through grafting and by the citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Asian psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae) is responsible for transmitting Las and Lam in Asia and America, while the African citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae Del Guercio (Homoptera: Psyllidae), is the natural vector of Laf in Africa [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Population Dynamics and Aspects of the Biology of Citrus Psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuw. (escholarship.org)
  • Spiroplasma phages affect members of the genus Spiroplasma, which are part of the class Mollicutes, a group of small bacteria without cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiroplasma is a genus of Mollicutes, a class of bacteria without cell wall. (cdc.gov)
  • Spiroplasma is a genus of Mollicutes , a group of small bacteria without cell walls . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Spiroplasma phage 1-R8A2B is a filamentous bacteriophage in the genus Vespertiliovirus of the family Plectroviridae, part of the group of single-stranded DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once S. citri had been cultured, long-time international collaborators of the INRA team were able to confirm the bacterium's helical form, which is unique to the Spiroplasma genus and responsible for its corkscrew-like motion. (inra.fr)
  • The genus Spiroplasma would continue to swell with new members, becoming extremely large. (inra.fr)
  • To determine whether homologous recombination could be used to inactivate selected genes in Spiroplasma citri , plasmid constructs were designed to disrupt the motility gene scm1 . (asm.org)
  • An internal scm1 gene fragment was inserted into plasmid pKT1, which replicates in Escherichia coli but not in S. citri , and into the S. citri oriC plasmid pBOT1, which replicates in spiroplasma cells as well as in E. coli . (asm.org)
  • Electrotransformation of S. citri with the nonreplicative, recombinant plasmid pKTM1 yielded no transformants. (asm.org)
  • Plasmid copy numbers of pSci1-6, as deduced from sequencing coverage, were estimated at 10 to 14 copies per spiroplasma cell, representing 1.6 Mb of extrachromosomal DNA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We have shown previously that the glucose PTS (phos-photransferase system) permease enzyme II of Spiroplasma citri is split into two distinct polypeptides, which are encoded by two separate genes, crr and ptsG . (apsnet.org)
  • 3 , 4 ) have reported the presence of spiroplasma-specific 16S rRNA genes in brain tissue taken at autopsy/necropsy from TSE-infected humans and animals. (asm.org)
  • expression patterns of genes involved in the defense and stress response of spiroplasma citri infected madagascar periwinkle catharanthus roseus. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Symptoms of S. citri infection in Arabidopsis included stunting of the basal rosette, curled and deformed cauline leaves, floral stunting and necrosis, reduced silique size and seed set, and reduced internode length on the floral stalk with terminal bunching of flowers and siliques. (apsnet.org)
  • These findings, which suggest maternal-fetal infection, are consistent with previous experimental Spiroplasma -induced cataract and uveitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Two Spiroplasma infections have been reported in humans: an intraocular infection in a newborn with Group VI Spiroplasma , now known as S. ixodetis ( 6 ), and a systemic infection in an immunocompromised adult with S. turonicum ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ocular anterior segment in 3 newborn infants with bilateral total cataract and anterior uveitis related to endogenous Spiroplasma ixodetis infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Experimental Spiroplasma brain infection in the suckling rat is characterized by vacuolar encephalopathy with localization of the microbe to gray matter. (thefullwiki.org)
  • the response of plants to s. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Intracranial inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum into new-born hamsters ( 31 ), suckling rats ( 5 ), or suckling mice ( 16 ) produces central nervous system disease, though not a progressive spongiform encephalopathy ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Experimental studies have demonstrated that S. mirum did not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons and recently suggested that the ability to form biofilms in Spiroplasma spp. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • Eastman C. E., Schultz G. A., McGuire M. R., Post S. L., Fletcher J., 1988: Characteristics of transmission of a horseradish brittle root isolate of Spiroplasma citri by the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). (kabourek.cz)
  • SpV1 virus-like particles were initially observed by electron microscopy in 1973 during the first ultrastructural characterization of S. citri. (wikipedia.org)
  • periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Martin, J., Chong, T. & Ferree, P. M. Male killing Spiroplasma preferentially disrupts neural development in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. (nature.com)
  • We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. (ufl.edu)
  • Because plasmids pSci1-5 encode surface proteins of the ScARP family and pSci6 was recently shown to confer insect transmissibility, diversity and abundance of S. citri plasmids may essentially aid the rapid adaptation of S. citri to more efficient transmission by different insect vectors and to various plant hosts. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A S. citri mutant was obtained by disruption of ptsG through homologous recombination and was proved unable to import glucose. (apsnet.org)
  • The S. citri chromosome contains CDS of plectrovirus prophages at multiple sites, often truncated, and many homologous to SpV1. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 35 PCR cycles, no samples were positive for spiroplasma or any other bacterial DNA, while control Spiroplasma mirum genomic DNA, spiked at 1% of the concentration required to account for the scrapie infectivity present, was readily detected. (asm.org)
  • In vivo and in vitro experimental Spiroplasma infections produce cytopathic effects similar to those of the scrapie agent. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This challenge can be circumvented by studying a more amenable bacterial relative, notably a spiroplasma that was characterized by INRA scientists in the 1970s. (inra.fr)
  • Harumoto, T., Anbutsu, H. & Fukatsu, T. Male-killing Spiroplasma induces sex-specific cell death via host apoptotic pathway. (nature.com)
  • given the absence of a cell wall, surface proteins including lipoproteins and transmembrane polypeptides are expected to play key roles in spiroplasma/host interactions. (liverpool.ac.uk)