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  • dorsal nerve roots
  • For the current study, L5 dorsal nerve roots were subjected to displacement rates of 20mm/sec, 200mm/sec, and 800mm/sec and neurophysiological parameters such as amplitude, area under the curve and conduction velocity of compound action potential were recorded and analyzed. (wayne.edu)
  • lesion
  • Damage to the spinal cord often results in a combination of the signs of root lesions (often including pain) at the site of the lesion with signs of damage to tracts below that level. (britannica.com)
  • Because the fibres cross shortly after they enter the cord, spinothalamic-tract lesions on the left side of the spinal cord lead to loss of sensations on the right side of the body below the lesion. (britannica.com)
  • As with lesions of the spinal cord, localization of the level of the lesion is determined by noting which of the cranial nerve functions are affected. (britannica.com)
  • A midline lesion of the medulla oblongata is likely to involve the pyramidal tracts (the descending motor pathway) and the medial lemnisci (the ascending tracts relaying sensory impulses from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord). (britannica.com)
  • Tracts
  • Parameters were assessed in nerve roots (dorsal and ventral) and in ascending (gracile fasciculus and spinocerebellar tract) and descending (corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts) spinal cord white matter tracts (L4-L5) of rats intoxicated with HD at two different daily dose-rates (175 or 400 mg HD/kg/day, gavage). (nih.gov)
  • The atrophy response occurred contemporaneously in both ascending and descending spinal tracts, which suggests that loss of caliber developed simultaneously along the proximodistal axon axis. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, swollen axons were a numerically small component and were present in nerve roots and spinal tracts only during subchronic intoxication at the lower HD dose-rate (i.e., 175 mg/kg/day). (nih.gov)
  • sciatic nerve
  • The effect of delayed nerve repair was determined in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. (diva-portal.org)
  • Piriformis syndrome is a rare neuromuscular disorder that occurs when the piriformis muscle compresses or irritates the sciatic nerve-the largest nerve in the body. (naric.com)
  • Compression of the sciatic nerve causes pain-frequently described as tingling or numbness-in the buttocks and along the nerve, often down to the leg. (naric.com)
  • compression
  • In other cases, individual nerves are affected as a result of compression or vascular disease. (britannica.com)
  • The goal was to measure spinal endothelial and astrocytic vimentin expression after a painful nerve root compression to define spinal cellular expression of vimentin in the context of pain. (ovid.com)
  • Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured and spinal cord tissue was harvested at days 1 and 7 after a unilateral nerve root compression in rats. (ovid.com)
  • Spinal astrocytic vimentin increases by day 7 after nerve root compression, corresponding to when mechanical hyperalgesia is maintained. (ovid.com)
  • Spinal endothelial vimentin increases as early as day 1 after a painful compression and is even more robust at day 7. (ovid.com)
  • Further, since BSCB integrity has been shown to be reestablished by day 7 after a painful compression, endothelial expressed vimentin may help to fortify spinal vasculature contributing to BSCB stability. (ovid.com)
  • Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is compression of the nerve roots at the base of the spinal cord. (epnet.com)
  • rats
  • Twelve SD rats underwent unilateral L5-S2 dorsal roots (DRTs) and ventral roots (VRTs) electrically stimulation and the bladder reflex contractions (BRCs) were recorded under isovolumetric condition. (auanet.org)
  • Impingement
  • The L5 nerve supplies the nerves to the muscles that raise the foot and big toe, and consequently, impingement of this nerve may lead to weakness in these muscles. (spine-health.com)
  • Impingement of the S1 nerve can lead to weakness with the large gastronemius muscle in the back of the calf, causing difficulty with foot push. (spine-health.com)
  • The S1 nerve root also supplies innervation for the ankle jerk (tap on the achilles tendon and the foot goes down), and a loss of this reflex indicates S1 impingement, although it does not create loss of function. (spine-health.com)
  • injury
  • A new drug that can be given orally restores sensory functions and muscle coordination after such injury by means of regeneration within the spinal cord. (frontiersin.org)
  • These roots undergo tension, resulting in traumatic axonal injury (TAI), which is also one of the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). (wayne.edu)
  • These findings indicate that functional injury and recovery in the spinal nerve roots shows a strain and strain rate dependency. (wayne.edu)
  • Damage to sympathetic autonomic fibres that run in the cervical portions of the spinal cord may lead to drooping of the eyelid ( ptosis ) and a smaller pupil on the same side as the injury (Horner syndrome). (britannica.com)
  • It is not known whether spinal astrocytes and endothelial cells modulate their expression of vimentin in response to a painful neural injury. (ovid.com)
  • Vimentin was coimmunolabeled with GFAP to label astrocytes and von Willebrand factor (VWF) for endothelial cells in the spinal cord on the side of injury. (ovid.com)
  • A common cause of CES is injury of a spinal disc on the nerve roots. (epnet.com)
  • Retrograde cell death in sensory dorsal root ganglion cells following peripheral nerve injury is well established. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results show that the spinal motoneurons reacted in a similar fashion with respect to morphological changes after both proximal and distal injury. (diva-portal.org)
  • Spinal cord emergencies are uncommon, but injury must be recognized early so that the diagnosis can be quickly confirmed and treatment can be instituted to possibly prevent permanent loss of function. (aafp.org)
  • sciatica
  • In their paper published in the May issue of the journal Pain , the research team reports finding that average levels of a marker of neuroinflammation were elevated in both the spinal cord and the nerve roots of patients with chronic sciatica. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • Overall the study results indicated that, compared with those of control participants, TSPO levels in sciatica patients were higher in both the neuroforamina and the spinal cord. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • The sciatica-associated elevations were seen in nerve roots on the side of affected legs and in spinal cord segments known to process sensory signals from the legs. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • segments
  • The spinal cord can be divided into segments according to the nerve roots that branch off of it. (spine-health.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the ventral horn from L4-L5 spinal cord segments revealed a significant upregulation of genes involved in programmed cell death including caspase-3, caspase-8, and related death receptors TRAIL-R, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-R, and Fas following VRA. (diva-portal.org)
  • distal
  • There was a dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons found in the distal nerve stumps of animals undergoing nerve repair after a delay of 3 and 6 months. (diva-portal.org)
  • Surgical
  • These data are based upon a retrospective review of 672 patients suitable for spinal anaesthesia in surgical procedures less than 60 minutes' duration using 30-40 mg chloroprocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy
  • Zhang adds, "If larger studies confirm that the efficacy of steroid injections correlates with nerve root inflammation, physicians will have a way to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from the procedure. (anesthesiaexperts.com)
  • motor
  • the motor root of a spinal nerve. (drugs.com)
  • Where fatigue and weakness are the symptoms, the underlying cause of disease may be a failure of motor nerve impulses to cross to the muscle end plate at the neuromuscular junction . (britannica.com)
  • Symptoms of motor nerve damage include weakness and muscle atrophy . (britannica.com)
  • Motor neurons controlling skeletal muscle, as well as preganglionic autonomic neurons are located in the ventral roots. (kenhub.com)
  • bladder
  • Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves controlling the bladder offers an alternative, non-destructive medical treatment for urinary incontinence and retention. (auanet.org)
  • clinical
  • The most important information in the assessment of a possible spinal cord emergency comes from the history and the clinical evaluation. (aafp.org)
  • commonly
  • Commonly, nerves are affected according to their length, the longest ones "dying back" from the periphery , being least able to sustain vital metabolic processes. (britannica.com)