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  • embryo
  • Then near the receptacle, it breaks through the ovule through the micropyle (an opening in the ovule wall) and the pollen tube "bursts" into the embryo sac, releasing sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of the egg to begin development into an embryo is triggered by a sperm-induced increase in intracellular egg Ca2+. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interplay of hormones is essential (a) to the maturation and release of an ovum, (b) to an environment conducive to allowing sperm to ascend, survive and become capable of fertilizing the ovum, and (c) for the newly conceived embryo to successfully implant in a "hospitable" uterine lining that is capable of supporting embryonic growth and development. (aleteia.org)
  • We know that after ovulation, the dominant follicle from which the ovum emerged is transformed into a corpus luteum which produces a high level of progesterone to support the endometrium in becoming "hospitable" for implantation in the event an embryo is conceived. (aleteia.org)
  • capacitation
  • Flesch F, Wijnand E, van de Lest C, Colenbrander B, van Golde L, Gadella B. Capacitation dependent activation of tyrosine phosphorylation generates two sperm head plasma membrane proteins with high primary binding affinity for the zona pellucida. (labome.org)
  • Tsai P, Brewis I, van Maaren J, Gadella B. Involvement of complexin 2 in docking, locking and unlocking of different SNARE complexes during sperm capacitation and induced acrosomal exocytosis. (labome.org)
  • seminal
  • In fact, sperm-specific, seminal fluid, and egg-specific proteins evolve at astonishingly rapid rates, and are often the fastest observed within a given genome. (g3journal.org)
  • Boar seminal plasma proteins (spermadhesins and DQH protein)bind the sperm surface at ejaculation. (nusl.cz)
  • oogenesis
  • Over a, usually, regular interval known as the menstrual cycle , in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent down the Fallopian tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovaries
  • The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the spermatozoon and are normally formed within the ovaries of the female fetus before its birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagina
  • During this process, the male inserts his penis, which needs to be erect , into the female's vagina , and then either partner initiates rhythmic pelvic thrusts until the male ejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the vaginal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sperm (being one of approximately 250 million sperm in a typical male ejaculation) travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or Fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • There has been much controversy about how the sperm induces this fundamental developmental event, but recent studies suggest that, in mammals, egg activation is triggered by a testis-specific phospholipase C: PLCzeta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Bicarbonate stimulated phospholipid scrambling induces cholesterol redistribution and enables cholesterol depletion in the sperm plasma membrane. (labome.org)
  • A model is proposed in which phospholipid scrambling induces the formation of an apical membrane raft in the sperm head surface that enables albumin mediated efflux of cholesterol. (labome.org)
  • infertile
  • Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced amounts of PLCzeta in sperm from infertile men, and in some cases, the presence of an abnormally low molecular weight form of PLCzeta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cervical
  • Sperm, however, can remain alive in cervical crypts, and remain capable of fertilizing an ovum, for up to five days preceding ovulation because at this stage the microenvironment of the cervix supports their viability. (aleteia.org)
  • pollen tube
  • The sperm are transferred from the pollen through the pollen tube to the ovule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike animal sperm which is motile, plant sperm is immotile and relies on the pollen tube to carry it to the ovule where the sperm is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rupture of the pollen tube to release sperm in Arabidopsis has been shown to depend on a signal from the female gametophyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increased uptake of calcium causes the pollen tube to rupture, and release its sperm into the ovule. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • Sperm Travel Essay - A brief essay about the journey of a sperm, the glands and hormones involved in reproduction, and how a baby is born. (writework.com)
  • Sperm Travel Essay When puberty begins in a male, the hypothalamus starts to produce a few different kinds of hormones that interact with the pituitary gland, which influences many physiological processes of the body. (writework.com)
  • The fertility cycle is an enormously complex series of interactions among a number of hormones that stimulate and downregulate the production of other hormones at precisely synchronized times. (aleteia.org)
  • gamete
  • In flowering plants a second fertilisation event involves another sperm cell and the central cell which is a second female gamete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vivo
  • The relevance for this to predict and identify the proteins involved in sperm zona binding in vivo is discussed. (labome.org)
  • exocytosis
  • Thus, sperm can be considered a valuable model for studying exocytosis. (labome.org)
  • The possibility to study separate and dynamic interactions between SNARE proteins, complexin and Ca(2+) which are all involved in AE make sperm an ideal model for studying exocytosis. (labome.org)
  • males
  • These rapid evolutionary rates in males are often attributed to sexual selection in the form of sperm competition ( Dhole and Servedio 2014 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Infertility
  • Some types of human infertility appear to be caused by failure of the sperm to activate and this may be due to specific defects in PLCzeta. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Reproduction
  • Christian Konrad Sprengel (1793) studied the reproduction of flowering plants and for the first time it was understood that the pollination process involved both biotic and abiotic interactions. (rug.nl)
  • Male
  • Male gametophores (right) are topped with antheridia that produce sperm. (rug.nl)
  • human
  • de Vries K, Wiedmer T, Sims P, Gadella B. Caspase-independent exposure of aminophospholipids and tyrosine phosphorylation in bicarbonate responsive human sperm cells. (labome.org)
  • roles
  • Sostaric E, Aalberts M, Gadella B, Stout T. The roles of the epididymis and prostasomes in the attainment of fertilizing capacity by stallion sperm. (labome.org)
  • This article reviews current information on the roles of epididymal and accessory gland fluids on the acquisition of fertilizing capacity by stallion sperm. (labome.org)
  • processes
  • This paper emphasizes biochemical models for membrane surface modelling and their potential involvement for remodelling the sperm surface in the above described processes. (labome.org)
  • Just as preinsemination processes are shaped by sexual selection, so too are postinsemination interactions. (g3journal.org)