###### spectral

- 88-14) This invention relates to analytical apparatus and more particularly to absorption spectral apparatus for quantitative analysis of materials which strongly absorb radiant energy of particular wave lengths in the ultraviolet, visible or infrared spectral regions. (google.com)
- Hence, by taking advantage of these properties, it is possible to analyze most substances both quantitatively and qualitatively by absorption spectral analysis. (google.com)
- In general, radiation within the spectral range of 220 millimicron to microns, which includes the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions can be used in absorption spectral analysis. (google.com)
- The absorption spectral apparatus of this invention is particularly useful for quantitative analysis employing infrared radiation and will be described in detail hereinafter with specific reference to various embodiments designed for use in this spectral region. (google.com)
- It should be clearly understood, however, that the apparatus of this invention can be used advantageously in spectral analysis employing ultraviolet and visible radiation. (google.com)
- The known absorption spectral analysis apparatus are, in general, expensive, bulky, contain many fragile and moving parts in the optical system which must be carefully aligned and are very sensitive to mechanical vibrations or shock, and will not function properly if exposed to conditions of abnormal temperatures or humidity or to corrosive fumes, which conditions are often encountered in manufacturing plants. (google.com)
- Furthermore, the known absorption spectral analysis apparatus requires highly skilled technicians for their proper maintenance and satisfactory operation. (google.com)
- The Fourier transform and spectral analysis are employed to estimate the fractal dimension and explore the fractal parameter relations of urban growth and form using mathematical experiments and empirical analyses. (hindawi.com)
- In this instance, three methods, including scaling analysis, spectral analysis, and spatial correlation analysis, are helpful for us to evaluate fractal parameters. (hindawi.com)
- In the theory of spectral analysis, the correlation function and energy spectrum can be converted into one another using Fourier transform [ 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Using spectral analysis based on correlation functions, we can find the relations among different fractal parameters, which in turn help us understand urban structure and evolution. (hindawi.com)
- The method of spectral analysis is employed to research the spatial dynamics of urban population distribution. (hindawi.com)
- The wave-spectrum model is applied to the city in the real world, Hangzhou, China, and spectral exponents can give the dimension values of the fractal lines of urban population profiles. (hindawi.com)
- In this paper, the exponential model of urban density will be explored by using the wave-spectral analysis. (hindawi.com)
- Nonlinear Methods of Spectral Analysis - Simon S. Haykin - Hardcover - 2nd corr. (valorebooks.com)
- Beat-to-beat heart rate variability was studied by power spectral analysis in 17 orthotopic cardiac transplant patients. (ahajournals.org)
- Mass spectral analysis of compounds 4p-q , 5a-g , 6 , and 7 revealed the different cleavage pathway patterns that can help in identifying the structures of steviolbioside and its amide derivatives. (hindawi.com)
- We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. (sciencemag.org)
- Since discrete Fourier transform is inherently related to Fourier analysis, this type of spectral analysis is by definition not suitable for spectrum decomposition in SCA. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared to DFT (or FFT), which is characterized by perfect spectral resolution, but poor temporal information, SCA favours temporal information, but yields higher spectrum dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
- The study of spectra and related properties is known as spectral theory, which has numerous applications, most notably the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- They are as follows: 1.Bartlett suggested a method that averages the spectral estimates to calculate the power spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
- 3.Welch suggested that we should divide the measurements using data window functions, calculate a periodogram, average them to get a spectral estimate and calculate the power spectrum using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). (wikipedia.org)
- He also discovered that the emission spectrum nebulae are nearly always associated with stars having spectral classifications of B or hotter (including all O-type main sequence stars), while nebulae with continuous spectra appear with cooler stars. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1935 it was the first star shown to have a different chemical composition than the sun via spectral analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Of course, the cause may also be visible as a result of the spectral analysis undertaken at the data-collection stage, but this may not always be the case. (wikipedia.org)

###### Analyzer

- Upstream Analyzer is a software-based application for remote upstream spectrum analysis that replaces the head-end equipment operators would normally use to monitor and troubleshoot upstream issues in the HFC plant. (prweb.com)
- CommView for WiFi can perform spectrum analysis by interfacing with Wi-Spy , a USB-based spectrum analyzer. (tamos.com)
- Rohde & Schwarz (R&S) this year celebrates 20 years of spectrum analyzer development, having introduced its first instrument in 1986. (microwavejournal.com)
- The company's first spectrum analyzer was the R&S FSA, introduced in 1986. (microwavejournal.com)
- At that time, the FSA set standards in RF performance and simplicity of operation, along with the first color spectrum analyzer display. (microwavejournal.com)
- The operation of a two-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analyzer is extended to include time integration over a sequence of CCD frames. (nasa.gov)
- Anritsu Company introduces the VNA Master MS2034A and MS2036A that offer integrated vector network analyzer (VNA), spectrum analyzer, and power meter capability in a single handheld, battery-operated, rugged instrument. (anritsu.com)

###### analyser

- Currently I use an expensive hardware spectrum analyser with a human interpreter. (picotech.com)
- I have set the spectrum analyser to have a 5KHz spectrum range with 2048x Spectrum bins, which gives a Bin width 2.441Hz and a Time gate 409.6ms. My question is about the swept signal generator. (picotech.com)
- According to RF Engines, the Hyperspeed FFT becomes the 'ultimate real-time spectrum analyser' when coupled with the latest ADCs, capable of analysing tens of GHz of bandwidth continuously in real time. (theengineer.co.uk)

###### analyze

- One of the products ZCorum will be demonstrating is RF Inspector, an app the company is selling for $9.95 per year, which can replace the meter that would normally be used to analyze downstream spectrum. (prweb.com)
- Spectrum analysis involves the use of special RF equipment designed to listen to and analyze the frequency bands utilized by Wi-Fi devices. (tamos.com)
- In spectrum analysis of naturally occurring audio signals , we nearly always analyze a short segment of a signal, rather than the whole signal. (dsprelated.com)

###### theoretically

- Sub-Hertz resolution in three-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analysis is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. (nasa.gov)

###### Spectroscopy

- If you want to buy used spectroscopy and spectrum analysis textbooks to help keep down the cost of your college studies, we can provide you with every text book you'll need. (valorebooks.com)
- With hundreds of available titles, it is easy to buy cheap spectroscopy and spectrum analysis textbooks to add to the ones you need for your course. (valorebooks.com)
- Consider purchasing books including Molecular Spectroscopy, Organic Structural Spectroscopy, Spectrochemical Analysis and Powder Diffraction: Theory and Practice to name just a few. (valorebooks.com)
- We buy back spectroscopy and spectrum analysis books too, so get in touch if you want to make money from your old text books. (valorebooks.com)
- Our website works on the basis of making it easy to buy or rent spectroscopy and spectrum analysis textbooks online. (valorebooks.com)
- Newton is traditionally regarded as the founder of spectroscopy, but he was not the first man of science who studied and reported on the solar spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1835, Charles Wheatstone reported that different metals could be easily distinguished by the different bright lines in the emission spectra of their sparks, thereby introducing an alternative mechanism to flame spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)

###### signals

- The second-generation instruments (the R&S FSE family) made it possible for the first time to perform modulation analysis of digitally-modulated signals. (microwavejournal.com)
- One dimensional signals are expressed in terms of a single domain while multidimensional signals are represented in wave vector and frequency spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
- In the recent past, a number of methods have been suggested to design models with finite parameters to estimate the power spectrum of multidimensional signals. (wikipedia.org)
- In this article, we will be looking into the basics of methods used to estimate the power spectrum of multidimensional signals. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also used in compression and coding of audio and video signals, beam forming and direction finding in radars, Seismic data estimation and processing, array of sensors and antennas and vibrational analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- When it comes to multidimensional signals, there are two main approaches: use a bank of filters or estimate the parameters of the random process in order to estimate the power spectrum. (wikipedia.org)

###### discrete

- The power spectra from the control subjects resolved into discrete peaks at 0.04-0.12 Hz and 0.2-0.3 Hz, whereas those of heart transplant recipients resembled broad-band noise without peaks. (ahajournals.org)
- In SCA however, one decomposes the spectrum into optimized discrete frequencies. (wikipedia.org)

###### observations

- In 1853, the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström presented observations and theories about gas spectra in his work: Optiska Undersökningar to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
- The stellar observations are done for spectrum analysis. (wikipedia.org)

###### power

- Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability in human cardiac transplant recipients. (ahajournals.org)
- Heart rate power spectra were calculated from eighty-four 256-second recordings and compared with those taken from six normal subjects. (ahajournals.org)
- When the power spectra of those patients whose endomyocardial biopsies showed evidence of myocardial rejection were compared with those from patients who were found to be free of rejection, a significant difference was found in log total power (-0.602 +/- 0.090 [0.vs. -0.909 +/- 0.136 [0. p less than 0.02). (ahajournals.org)
- Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. (sciencemag.org)
- It is a technique to estimate the power spectrum of a single dimensional or a multidimensional signal as it cannot be calculated accurately. (wikipedia.org)
- His doctoral dissertation established mathematical models for the signal-to-noise properties (specifically, the modulation transfer function, noise-power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency) of flat-panel x-ray detectors. (wikipedia.org)
- In time series analysis, Bartlett's method (also known as the method of averaged periodograms), is used for estimating power spectra. (wikipedia.org)

###### Therefore

- Therefore, to perform a spectrum analysis having time- and frequency-resolution comparable to human hearing , we must limit the time-window accordingly. (dsprelated.com)

###### peaks

- Intense [M+H] + and [M+Na] + ion peaks were observed on the FAB and ESI spectra. (hindawi.com)

###### interference

- The purpose of spectrum analysis is to detect and identify such sources of interference, eliminate them, and/or identify the WLAN channels with minimal interference. (tamos.com)

###### frequency-resolution

- Wider the main lobe of the smoothening spectrum, smoother it becomes at the cost of frequency resolution. (wikipedia.org)

###### analyzers

- The company now offers 33 different spectrum analyzers, ranging from portable, battery-operated instruments for the field, to comprehensive microwave signal analyzers for characterizing the performance of wireless systems. (microwavejournal.com)
- There are various types of spectrum analyzers ranging from large and expensive bench-top units to portable ("field units") and PC-based analyzers. (wikipedia.org)
- Because portability is a decisive factor in conducting wireless site surveys, PC-based spectrum analyzers in CardBus and USB form factors are widely used today. (wikipedia.org)

###### vector

- The spectrum of an operator on a finite-dimensional vector space is precisely the set of eigenvalues. (wikipedia.org)

###### approaches

- Most existing spectrum-based approaches rely on similarity measures to locate faulty software units by identifying the units that most resemble the spectra error outcomes [ 9 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)

###### main

- When Wi-Spy is plugged in, a live spectrum picture is displayed on the Channels and Spectrum pane of the main CommView for WiFi window, as shown below. (tamos.com)
- The spectrum pane can be detached from the main application window and displayed as a separate floating window. (tamos.com)
- Channels and Spectrum item in the main application menu. (tamos.com)

###### Definition

- Since the definition of the spectrum does not mention any properties of B(X) except those that any such algebra has, the notion of a spectrum may be generalised to this context by using the same definition verbatim. (wikipedia.org)

###### time series

- SCA deals with the prediction problem of continuing a frequency spectrum beyond a sampled (usually stochastic) time series fragment. (wikipedia.org)

###### measurement

- MS2034A/MS2036A light weight (4 kg), three-plus hour battery life, and advanced measurement and analysis capability make it well suited for a variety of field applications. (anritsu.com)

###### technique

- The most common technique for detecting faults is the time-frequency analysis technique. (wikipedia.org)

###### signal

- He developed early models for the signal and noise performance of flat-panel detectors and later extended such analysis to dual-energy imaging and 3D imaging performance in cone-beam CT. (wikipedia.org)

###### operators

- The notion of spectrum extends to densely defined unbounded operators. (wikipedia.org)