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  • mirror neurons
  • Where do mirror neurons come from? (ox.ac.uk)
  • Alternatively, mirror neurons may be a byproduct of associative learning. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here I argue that the adaptation and associative hypotheses both offer plausible accounts of the origin of mirror neurons, but the associative hypothesis has three advantages. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Second, it is consistent with emerging evidence that mirror neurons contribute to a range of social cognitive functions, but do not play a dominant, specialised role in action understanding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The associative account implies that mirror neurons come from sensorimotor experience, and that much of this experience is obtained through interaction with others. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These cells, later dubbed mirror neurons, responded equally well during the monkey's own motor actions, such as grabbing an object, and while the monkey watched someone else perform similar motor actions. (indigo.ca)
  • Mirror neurons soon jumped species and took human neuroscience and psychology by storm. (indigo.ca)
  • In the years that followed, a stream of scientific studies implicated mirror neurons in everything from schizophrenia and drug abuse to sexual orientation and contagious yawning. (indigo.ca)
  • In The Myth of Mirror Neurons, neuroscientist Gregory Hickok reexamines the mirror neuron story and finds that it is built on a tenuous foundation-a pair of codependent assumptions about mirror neuron activity and human understanding. (indigo.ca)
  • The Myth of Mirror Neurons not only delivers an instructive tale about the course of scientific progress-from discovery to theory to revision-but also provides deep insights into the organization and function of the human brain and the nature of communication and cognition. (indigo.ca)
  • new evidence that has emerged since the publication of Donald's book, primarily the discovery of mirror neurons, has laid the groundwork for a potentially more fluid, less periodic theory of the evolution of the mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirror neurons are a class of cells[dubious - discuss] that have been found in the brains of several species of monkey, as well as in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is unique to mirror neurons is that a few of them in a cluster will also fire when an individual watches a different individual performing an intentional action. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • During neurotransmission, synaptic cleft glutamate activates its receptors in neurons and in astrocytes, before being taken up by astrocytes through energy costly transporters. (ovid.com)
  • To enable this, astrocytes are constitutively glycolytic, robustly expressing 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3), an enzyme that is negligibly present in neurons by continuous degradation because of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway via anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC)-Cdh1. (ovid.com)
  • Astrocyte-derived glycolytic lactate thus sustains the energy needs of neurons, which in contrast to astrocytes mainly rely on oxidative phosphorylation. (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, neural activity is coupled with erythroid-derived erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) mediated transcriptional activation of antioxidant genes in astrocytes, which boost the de novo glutathione biosynthesis in neighbor neurons. (ovid.com)
  • By coupling glutamatergic activity with transcriptional activation of antioxidant genes, astrocytes provide neurons with neuroprotective glutathione through an astrocyte-neuronal glutathione shuttle (ANGS). (ovid.com)
  • Behavior
  • These cells were ideal for studying the effects of neurotransmitters on neuron behavior: using discarded Aplysia ganglia and equipment provided by Strumwasser's lab, Kehoe began her study of synaptic physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of the behavior it was purported to command. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty years of command neurons: the neurobiology of escape behavior in the crayfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • First, it provides a straightforward, testable explanation for the differences between monkeys and humans that have led some researchers to question the existence of a mirror neuron system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • He then explores alternative explanations of mirror neuron function while illuminating crucial questions about human cognition and brain function: Why do humans imitate so prodigiously? (indigo.ca)
  • and in 2015, it was reported in the science journal Pain, that several mammalian species (rat, mouse, rabbit, cat and horse) adopt a facial expression in response to a noxious stimulus that is consistent with the expression of pain in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter) alternating with optic fibers (white matter). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adult humans about 700 new neurons are added in the hippocampus every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • noradrenergic
  • Noradrenergic neurons have been shown to fire frequently during watchfulness and vigilance whereas serotonergic neurons are quiescent during the same activity in cats (Jacobs and Azmitia, 1992). (springer.com)
  • Aston-Jones, G., H. Akaoka, P. Charlety, and G. Chouvet (1991) Serotonin selectively attenuates glutamateevoked activation of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons. (springer.com)
  • Oxidopamine, also known as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine, is a neurotoxic synthetic organic compound used by researchers to selectively destroy dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Midbrain
  • Azmitia, E.C. (1978) The serotonin-producing neurons of the midbrain median and dorsal raphe nuclei In L.L. Iversen, S.D. Iversen and S.H. Snyder (eds): Handbook of Psychopharmacology. (springer.com)
  • 1978
  • Aghajanian, G.K., and R.Y. Wang (1978) Physiology and pharmacology of central serotonergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • In 1978, Kupfermann and Weiss' "The Command Neuron Concept" proposed a more rigorous definition of the command neuron than had previously been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aplysia
  • This technique has been successfully applied to characterize and chemically distinguish single cells of various neuron types from Aplysia californica. (illinois.edu)
  • She has spent decades working with the neurons of Aplysia californica, studying post-synaptic nerve response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a nearby lab Felix Strumwasser was using neurons from Aplysia Californica, a species of sea slug, to study circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • adulthood
  • Finally, the associative hypothesis is supported by recent data showing that, even in adulthood, the mirror neuron system can be transformed by sensorimotor learning. (ox.ac.uk)
  • activates
  • A study has shown that direct injection of amyloid into brain tissue activates microglia, which reduces the number of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • She determined that multiple receptors for a particular neurotransmitter could be found on a neuron, each receptor could change the conductance of the neurotransmitter in a different and independent manner, and that the postsynaptic response could vary from cell to cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We show that trophic coherence, a structural property of ecosystems, is key to the extent of feedback in these as well as in many other systems, including networks related to genes, neurons, metabolites, words, computers, and trading nations. (pnas.org)
  • Our theory correctly classifies a variety of networks-including those derived from genes, metabolites, species, neurons, words, computers, and trading nations-into two distinct regimes of high and low feedback and provides a null model to gauge the significance of related magnitudes. (pnas.org)
  • Neuronal
  • Neuronal activity is a high-energy demanding process recruiting all neural cells that adapt their metabolism to sustain the energy and redox balance of neurons. (ovid.com)
  • The constituting neurons belong to two different neuronal genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these neuronal populations have been identified in some species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axolotls have contributed as a bridge organism between invertebrates and mammals, as the species has the regenerative capacity to undergo complete neurogenesis forming a wide range of neuronal populations not limited to a small niche, yet the complexity and architecture is complex and analogous in many ways to human neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers speculated that the neurons allowed the monkey to understand others by simulating their actions in its own brain. (indigo.ca)
  • Decreases
  • The number of perithalamic neurons strongly decreases in evolution in opposition to the large increase in microneurons (Arcelli et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Molecular fingerprinting of On-Off direction selective retinal ganglion cells across species and relevance to primate visual circuits. (stanford.edu)
  • Our findings indicate that On-Off direction-selective retinal neurons may have evolutionarily diverged in primates and more generally provide novel insight into the identity and organization of primate parallel visual pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • brain tissue
  • Many of the newborn dentate gyrus neurons die shortly after they are born, but a number of them become functionally integrated into the surrounding brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • Stimulation of the command neuron triggers a lower level central pattern generator whose motorneurons and interneurons produce a particular fixed action pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • neighbor
  • They have the rather rare property of having no initial axonal collaterals, which implies that one emitting thalamocortical neuron does not send information to its neighbor. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • RESULTS: In all species, a perivascular network of diaphorase-positive nerve fibers with varicose terminals accompanied the arteries and arterioles of the choroidal stroma. (arvojournals.org)
  • whereas
  • Robust D2-IPSCs were observed in all recordings from neurons in slices taken from mouse, whereas D2-IPSCs in rat and guinea pig were observed less frequently and were significantly smaller in amplitude. (jneurosci.org)