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  • genes
  • To identify deeply conserved pectin-related genes in Physcomitrella , we generated phylogenetic trees for 16 pectin-related gene families using sequences from ten plant genomes and analyzed the evolutionary relationships within these families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DEFL genes show a different evolutionary trend, with fewer recombination events and significantly fewer instances of natural selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The research teams were able to build the family tree by amplifying and comparing highly conserved genes from all known species of social amoeba. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We hypothesize that these species might have resulted from recent convergence in colour pattern, perhaps facilitated by hybrid introgression of wing pattern genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Marceléia Rubert, Renata da Rosa, Claudio H. Zawadzki, Sandra Mariotto, Orlando Moreira-Filho, and Lucia Giuliano-Caetano, " Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites ," Zebrafish , 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Desaturase genes were located in all species. (bl.uk)
  • Some genes, those that have previously been shown to have important roles in pheromonal communication, have experienced duplication and loss in several species. (bl.uk)
  • Here we have analyzed the evolution of γ1 ERVs in ten species of Suidae (suids, pigs and hogs) from Eurasia and Africa using DNA sequences for their coding domains ( gag , pro / pol and env genes). (beds.ac.uk)
  • By obtaining sequence data for two rRNA and nine protein-coding genes, we determined the likely phylogenetic relationships among the 26 species in culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neotropical
  • Species of the Drosophila obscura group (41 species assigned to six subgroups) are mostly inhabitants of temperate forest throughout the Holarctic region, with some can adapted into high-elevation temperate-like habitats in the Afrotropical, Neotropical and Oriental regions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • populations
  • It is now known that the chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( 4 , 5 ) causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians ( 6 , 7 ) which has led to the decline, extirpation, and extinction of amphibian populations and species around the world ( 8 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using evolutionary game theory, we incorporate evolution into population dynamic models and apply the resulting "Darwinian dynamic" models to study the effects that evolutionary changes can have on populations in several ecological scenarios. (openrepository.com)
  • Our analyses show that the populations of this species are structured on a regional scale, with greater genetic differentiation occurring between rather than within populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results shed further insight into the plasticity and adaptability of this siboglinid group to a range of reducing conditions, and into the levels of gene flow that occur between populations of the same species over a global extent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as discussed below (see Evolutionary Origins of Hexaploid Tall Fescue section in this chapter), the heterogeneity among populations of 6 x tall fescue may indicate multiple origins with different progenitor species. (oregonstate.edu)
  • One promising avenue to understand the causes and consequences of genetic diversity within populations is to consider correlations between that genetic diversity and species diversity of the community in which it resides. (stanford.edu)
  • We use mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequence data to reconstruct relationships among 13 species and 22 populations in the genera Palirhoeus, Bothrometopus and Ectemnorhinus. (up.ac.za)
  • loci
  • While there are problems with the use of molecular data to delimit species, the examination of genetic variation at multiple (both mitochondrial and nuclear) loci within an evolutionary context has become an important addition to our definition of a species alongside morphological, biological and ecological observations [ 13 - 15 ], as well as a critical tool in the investigation of species biogeography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, as the species in the group are recently diverged, reasonably informative microsatellite data are likely to require analysis of a rapid evolving category of microsatellite loci. (openthesis.org)
  • Theoretical predictions and empirical studies indicate that phylogenetic analyses based on microsatellite primers isolated from a focal species may be subject to ascertainment biases that can be expected to degrade the efficacy of this approach with increasing phylogenetic depth between the species from which the microsatellites were isolated and those to which these loci are being compared. (openthesis.org)
  • Results of an analysis of allelic variation at 12 pure, dinucleotide microsatellite loci (isolated from P. maniculatus) are reported for samples of all species in the P. maniculatus species group and the sister taxon P. leucopus. (openthesis.org)
  • Here we reconstruct the phylogeny of this group by using sequence data from 6 loci of 21 species (including 16 Old World ones) covering all the 6 subgroups of this group, estimate the divergence times among lineages, and statistically test the 'rapid radiation' hypothesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The occurrence of multiple DRB loci was found for the two Phyllostomidae species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • phylogeny
  • These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. (pnas.org)
  • Examined for the species in the P. maniculatus species group for which there is an a priori highly corroborated phylogeny, evidence of ascertainment bias was apparent only for one locus that was unique to P. maniculatus. (openthesis.org)
  • Firstly, two different viral lineages of γ1 ERVs were found and a coevolutionary analysis demonstrated that they correspond broadly to their host phylogeny, one of Eurasian and another of African species, and show no evidence of horizontal transmission. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The 16 new species provide a resource and their phylogeny offers a framework for further studies into the evolution of genomic and phenotypic characters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • evolve
  • There, the husband-and-wife team of Princeton professors emeriti takes meticulous observations and genetic data to track how the island's three finch species behave and evolve. (princeton.edu)
  • Using sophisticated computer software to align and compare the mammals genetic material, or genomes, the team determined that chromosomes tend to break in the same places as species evolve, resulting in rearrangements of their DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • We show how a consumer can cause a resource (producer) species to evolve to a mean strategy that increases its growth rate rather than its population size. (openrepository.com)
  • genome
  • This study shows the tremendous power of using multi-species genome comparisons to understand evolutionary processes, including those with potential relevance to human disease," said NHGRI Scientific Director Eric D. Green, M.D., Ph.D. "The dog genome map generated by NHGRI researchers and their collaborators played a key role in these new analyses. (innovations-report.com)
  • Moreover, it appears that while mammalian genomes vary within a narrow range in their genome sizes, plant genomes vary extensively in part due to the differential amplification of LTR retrotransposons in different species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the contributor of the second genome to each of these species clearly is different and remains unknown in both cases. (oregonstate.edu)
  • merus and their homologous sequence in the outgroup species were analyzed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), library screening, whole-genome mate-paired sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. (vt.edu)
  • processes
  • Our results show how evolutionary game theoretic methods can be useful for studying both theoretical and applied problems that arise due to evolutionary processes, even when they occur on a ecological time scale. (openrepository.com)
  • Our aim was to assess if Quaternary climatic oscillations had a different effect across the species' range and to determine if genetic footprints of contemporary processes can be identified in areas of recent introduction. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The two levels of diversity can influence each other by creating spatially-varied selection regimes, but gene flow and mutation are two processes operating on the genetic level whose power to scale up to influence species-level patterns is highly contextual. (stanford.edu)
  • Climatic
  • Quaternary climatic oscillations had dramatic effects on species evolution. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Many terrestrial species are today responding to the contemporary global warming [ 1 ], and their future response will at least partially depend on their previous reactions to climatic oscillations. (beds.ac.uk)
  • hybridization
  • Building on the notions of polyploidy and hybridization discussed above, it becomes possible to begin a proposed evolutionary history for this group of grasses. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Paramount to such proposals is information arising from cytological evaluations (chromosome number and morphology, as well as extrachromosomal elements like satellite DNA) and hybridization studies of species within and between genera. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Thus, as Borrill (1972) pointed out, the genesis of tetraploids and hybridization between them seem to be central factors in the evolution of species in subg. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Despite important early work [ 1 - 6 ], the image of hybridization in evolutionary literature has only recently changed from that of a predominantly destructive force to a more balanced view, giving due credit to hybridization as a potential catalyst of phenotypic evolution and indeed diversification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. (hindawi.com)
  • 1803
  • Marcia Cristina de Souza Lara Kamei, Lucas Baumg?rtner, Suzana Paiva, Cl?udio Henrique Zawadzki, Isabel Cristina Martins-Santos, and Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro, " Chromosomal Diversity of Three Species of Hypostomus Lac?p?de, 1803 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), from the Paran? (hindawi.com)
  • algorithms
  • Our research interest is to develop more efficient evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimisation and different evolution, to solve different kinds of complex engineering problems by finding multiple global solutions. (findaphd.com)
  • In particular, we have developed a series of species conserving genetic algorithms, which have been demonstrated to be capable of finding multiple global and local solutions. (findaphd.com)
  • Drosophila
  • Many species of Drosophila are behaviourally isolated, meaning that heterospecific individuals are not attracted to one another and do not interbreed. (bl.uk)
  • This thesis investigates the evolution of the gene family across 12 species of Drosophila. (bl.uk)
  • Species of the Drosophila obscura species group (e.g. (beds.ac.uk)
  • chromosomal
  • In their paper, researchers report that the chromosomal abnormalities most frequently associated with human cancer are far more likely to occur in or near the evolutionary breakage hotspots than are less common types of cancer-associated abnormalities. (innovations-report.com)
  • The multi-species comparison published in Science also yielded surprising results about the rate at which chromosomal evolution occurs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biologists
  • For 40 years, Daphne Major, one of the smaller Galápagos Islands, has hosted annual research visits by evolutionary biologists Rosemary and Peter Grant. (princeton.edu)
  • The formation and persistence of species are the subject of much debate among biologists. (bl.uk)
  • Hypostomus
  • River Basin, Brazil: A Species Complex in Hypostomus ancistroides Reinforced by a ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosome System ," Zebrafish , 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • sequence
  • As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, a number of research projects, including teams in the USA and Germany, have won sponsorship to sequence the genomes of social amoeba species identified by the work in York an d Dundee. (bio-medicine.org)
  • diversity
  • We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. (pnas.org)
  • Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. (pnas.org)
  • Our knowledge of amphibian species diversity is far from complete ( 8 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • We adopt PD here to provide a measure of change in community diversity following epidemic disease, but it could be used for any temporal analysis in which species diversity of a community has been completely described at two or more points in time. (pnas.org)
  • These complex polysaccharides are almost universally conserved in land plants and are also present in some algae [ 4 ], although structural diversity in pectins is present between some species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This indicates that their diversity dates back to a common ancestor and species-specific duplications did not significantly contribute to gene family expansion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These characteristics dramatically affected the present-day distribution of genetic diversity and may influence the ability of species to cope with the current global changes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In most of Europe, the genetic diversity pattern was typical for species that experienced marked glaciation cycles. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2011. Ecological and evolutionary connections between genetic and species diversity. (stanford.edu)
  • Both genetic and species diversity can respond to locality characteristics, or each level can influence and be influenced by the other. (stanford.edu)
  • Next, I explored two ways in which genetic and species diversity influence each other. (stanford.edu)
  • In one approach, I examine the effects of a species-rich competitor community on the genotypic diversity of a focal community when genetic diversity allows for differential strength of competition with different species. (stanford.edu)
  • Using computer simulations, I show that species diversity of competitors can act as an important promoter of genotypic diversity within species (Chapter 2). (stanford.edu)
  • Next, moving to a riparian community in northern Utah, I demonstrate that the genetic diversity of a foundation tree correlates positively with the species diversity of understory plants, including forbs, grasses, and vines (Chapter 3). (stanford.edu)
  • By taking a broad approach to understanding the causes and consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity, with a particular focus on links to species diversity patterns, my dissertation finds general principles that operate across systems. (stanford.edu)
  • molecular
  • Increased exploration in the tropics and new molecular approaches to the identification of cryptic amphibian lineages are leading to a rapid description of new species ( 8 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Researchers, headed by evolutionary biologist Professor Sandie Baldauf, of the University of York, and biochemist Professor Pauline Schaap, of the University of Dundee, have produced the first molecular 'dictionary' of the 100 or so known species of social amoeba. (bio-medicine.org)
  • morphological
  • Much of the discussion has been based on interpretation of species distributions, based on morphological or anatomical delimitations. (up.ac.za)
  • sequences
  • DNA barcoding uses a rapidly expanding database to efficiently match species names to voucher specimens via DNA sequences, or to recognize DNA lineages that may represent species not yet described ( 16 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • We established barcodes for all species using ITS2 rDNA sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Recently, several host intracellular anti-viral proteins that contribute to species-specificity of primate lentiviruses have been identified revealing adaptive mechanisms that further limit spread of lentiviruses between species. (nova.edu)
  • biological
  • Since finches find mates based on these cues, the interloper's descendants are "reproductively isolated" - a biological criterion for a new species. (princeton.edu)
  • adaptive
  • Agricultural breeding programs have long benefited from transgressive phenotypes as a means to improve cultivars but studying the adaptive potential of transgression in evolutionary research is only a recent development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • common ancestor
  • γ2 ERVs, however, show a bush-like evolution, suggesting a rapid viral radiation from a single common ancestor with no correspondence between host and viral evolutionary trees. (beds.ac.uk)
  • occur
  • In Chapter 2, a rigorous mathematical analysis of the Darwinian logistic model for a single species shows that stable equilibria occur at strategies that maximize population size rather than growth rate. (openrepository.com)
  • 11. Several species can co-occur in the same location or even the same fruit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene families
  • Therefore, determining how this co-evolutionary interplay may affect large gene families involved in defense responses is essential to understand their role in the evolution or abrogation of resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • different
  • 31 ] recently described a mechanism whereby hybridizing cichlid species with different morphologies but similar functions are likely to produce functionally transgressive progeny. (biomedcentral.com)
  • rDNA
  • Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. (hindawi.com)
  • All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. (hindawi.com)
  • chromosomes
  • In a study published in the July 22 issue of the journal Science, a team of 25 scientists from the United States, France and Singapore compared the organization of the chromosomes of eight mammalian species: human, mouse, rat, cow, pig, dog, cat and horse. (innovations-report.com)
  • host species
  • In addition, concurrent viral and host genetic analyses have been used to track patterns of migration of the host species and barriers to transmission of the virus within the African lion. (nova.edu)
  • Evidence of at least two viral subpopulations was observed in γ1 ERVs from Eurasian and African host species. (beds.ac.uk)