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  • subunit
  • The results demonstrate the important role of both intra- and inter-subunit charge interactions in stabilizing apoC-II amyloid fibrils, a process that may be a key factor in determining the general ability of proteins to form amyloid fibrils. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Lipid
  • APOC2 encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are agonists at peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma-type (PPAR-γ) receptors and are used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes where they have been shown to reestablish insulin sensitivity, improve lipid profiles, and reduce inflammation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vitro
  • Thus, the pathophysiological significance of alternative Ang II-forming pathways remained unclear, until Urata et al 18 19 found in humans that most of the cardiac Ang II formation in vitro was due to chymase, which was the most potent and specific Ang II-forming serine proteinase ever described. (ahajournals.org)
  • molecule
  • Information processing of environmental inputs at the neuronal level will involve the function of (1) small molecule neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as insulin-like peptides, (2) stress-sensing pathways, and (3) mitochondria-associated signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • physiological roles
  • The proteins apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoL-I, and haptoglobin-related protein, which are involved in TLF structure and function, were expressed through the introduction of transgenes in mice to explore their physiological roles in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Although many animals possess chymase, its biochemical and physiological roles seem to vary by species. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rabbit
  • In the heart, the highest total Ang II-forming activity was observed in humans, and a chymaselike enzyme was dominant in all of the species except rabbit and pig. (ahajournals.org)
  • Aorta exhibited a relatively high total Ang II-forming activity, with a predominance of chymaselike activity in all of the species except rabbit and pig, in which ACE was dominant. (ahajournals.org)
  • enzyme
  • 19 For example, rat chymase I, which was identified in rat peritoneal mast cells, is an Ang II-degrading enzyme rather than an Ang II-forming enzyme. (ahajournals.org)
  • receptor
  • Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • APOB
  • In contrast, apoA-I in LpAI:AII and apoA-II positively correlated to the apoB-lipoprotein parameters even within their small range of variation. (paperity.org)
  • tissues
  • Although alternative Ang II-forming pathways are known to exist in various tissues, the details of such pathways remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on osteoclast differentiation associated with TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontal tissues using a rat dyslipidemia (apolipoprotein E deficient) model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inhibitor
  • 1 2 ACE inhibitors have also helped to elucidate the existence of alternative Ang II-forming pathways, since Ang II is formed despite chronic treatment with ACE inhibitor. (ahajournals.org)
  • ACE inhibitor-insensitive Ang II formation has also been observed in the arteries of dogs, monkeys, and humans 12 13 and in rat hindlimb, 14 ischemic dog heart, 15 16 and hamster heart. (ahajournals.org)