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  • frontal
  • The accuracy of the approach-to-target responses declined as the stimulus duration was reduced, particularly for lateral and posterior locations, although responses to sounds presented in the frontal region of space and directly behind the animal remained quite accurate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Factors
  • 2011). Previous modeling studies suggested that a convergence of phase-locked spikes from NM leads to an oscillatory membrane potential in NL, but how presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic factors affect the formation of the sound analog potential remains to be investigated. (nih.gov)
  • discrimination
  • It was found that the dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m response, defined as the mean difference in response magnitude between contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation, reflects cortical activity related to the discrimination of horizontal sound direction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • movements
  • These cues are also used by other animals, but there may be differences in usage, and there are also localization cues which are absent in the human auditory system, such as the effects of ear movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also obtained a non-categorized measure of localization accuracy by recording head-orienting movements made during the first second following stimulus onset. (ox.ac.uk)
  • intensity-difference
  • This paper firstly introduces a new set of psychoacoustic values of interchannel time difference (ICTD) and interchannel intensity difference (ICID) required for 10, 20 and 30 localisation in the conventional stereophonic reproduction, which were obtained using natural sound sources of musical instruments and wideband speech representing different characteristics. (aes.org)
  • audible
  • Recently, we developed such an audible sound-based positioning system, based on a spread spectrum approach. (mdpi.com)
  • sensory
  • The localization problem of which sound location gave rise to a particular sensory acoustic input cannot be uniquely solved, and therefore requires some clever strategies to cope with everyday situations. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • listener
  • That is to say, the listener will be incapable of determining whether the sound originated from the back, front, top, bottom or anywhere else along the circumference at the base of a cone at any given distance from the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that, provided the total synaptic input is kept constant, changes in the number and spike rate of NM fibers alter the ITD-independent noise whereas the degree of phase-locking is linearly converted to the ITD-dependent signal component of the sound analog potential. (nih.gov)