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  • USSC
  • The researchers first showed that the USSC treatment promotes regrowth of axons - the connecting arms of nerve cells. (icord.org)
  • More than 20% albumin-producing human parenchymal hepatic cells with absence of cell fusion and substantial numbers of human cardiomyocytes in both atria and ventricles of the sheep heart were detected many months after USSC transplantation. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we termed the primary population unrestricted somatic stem cell (USSC). (rupress.org)
  • For the first one to three passages, cells grown in USSC growth medium ACF proliferate and maintain their morphology, but with continued passaging the cells form spherical cell aggregates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we investigate the capacity of three different stem cell culture media HEScGRO™, PSM and USSC growth medium ACF to enable maintenance of USSCs in serum-free conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we characterized cord blood Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSC) and their hepatocyte differentiation capabilities for functional liver support in a three dimensional arrangement. (ac.ir)
  • As well as, USSC represent a stem cell source with a substantial hepatic differentiation capability which hold the possible for clinical applications. (ac.ir)
  • A new stem cell-scaffold construct based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) nanofibers grafted with collagen (PLLA-COL) and cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) were proposed to hold promising characteristics for bone tissue engineering. (barakatkns.com)
  • These observations suggested the enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of USSC on PLLA-COL nanofiber scaffolds and introduced a new combination of stem cell-scaffold constructs with desired characteristics for application in bone tissue engineering. (barakatkns.com)
  • pluripotency
  • This rare population grows adherently and can be expanded to 10 15 cells without losing pluripotency. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of markers associated with pluripotency ( Oct4 and Sox2 ) and differentiation ( FoxA2, Brachyury, Goosecoid, Nestin, Pax6, Gata6 and Cytokeratin 8 ) confirms that cells in the spheres maintain their gene expression profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene profiling utilizing Affymetrix microarrays revealed the suppression of important pluripotency factors, including Nanog, a master regulator of stem cell identity, and the activation of differentiation-related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, our data indicate that THO regulates pluripotency gene mRNA export to control ESC self-renewal and differentiation, and therefore uncover a role for this aspect of post-transcriptional regulation in stem cell fate specification. (omictools.com)
  • Figure 3 shows that hADSCs express alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity weakly (Fig. 3A), whereas the generated colonies not only exhibited AP activity strongly (Fig. 3B), but also showed expression of ES cell-associated pluripotency markers, including TRA-1-60, OCT4, Nanog and SSEA4 in 28 days (Fig. 3C). (sprentland.com)
  • biology
  • We will use various experimental systems to characterize and study the properties of the iPS cells, their biology, developmental potential, capability to give rise to functional differentiated progeny etc. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some of the most fascinating questions in biology focus on understanding how stem cells are specified, maintained and instructed to differentiate. (biologists.org)
  • The investigation of the hitherto unappreciated layer of gene regulation mediated by miRNAs has also provided new insights into our understanding of stem cell biology and pointed to new directions for therapeutic applications of stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • proliferation
  • Long‐term proliferation in culture and germline transmission of mouse male germline stem cells. (currentprotocols.com)
  • They are involved in the fine-tuning of fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis in many cell types. (springer.com)
  • Megan Dailey (left) and Elizabeth Davis (right), both from the University of Illinois' animal sciences department, have discovered that the autonomic nervous system exerts direct control over stem cell proliferation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Prior to Davis's study, which is published in Physiological Reports , scientists had suspected the ANS was involved in stem cell proliferation, but they didn't know if the relationship was direct or indirect. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instead, you could just figure out what neurotransmitters are controlling proliferation and then get that chemical to those stem cells with targeted drug delivery," says Megan Dailey, assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences at U of I and co-author on the paper. (eurekalert.org)
  • When we simulated activation of either of those systems, we saw a decrease in stem cell proliferation," Dailey says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although the research focused on the intestinal epithelium, Davis and Dailey suspect the ANS is directly controlling stem cell proliferation in other parts of the body, as well. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we show that injury induces Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in enteroblasts (EBs) to promote intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster adult midgut. (rupress.org)
  • During adult life of multicellular organisms, many organs depend on resident stem cells to maintain tissue integrity by replacing damaged cells, yet the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation are still not fully understood. (rupress.org)
  • However, how these pathways are regulated in response to tissue damaging and how they are integrated to control stem cell proliferation and differentiation are still poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • induce
  • We will induce the differentiation of the iPS cells towards specific cell lineages and the progeny can be used to study the pathogenesis of diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • But changes in cells can also occur when neurotransmitters induce a general state of inflammation or alter blood flow, an indirect route of action for the ANS. (eurekalert.org)
  • hematopoietic stem
  • This has been documented for the hematopoietic stem cells, which in CB are more abundant than in BM and have a higher proliferative potential associated with an extended life span and longer telomeres ( 16 - 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • iPSCs
  • However, genetic aberrations such as somatic gene mutation in the resulting iPSCs have raised concerns regarding their clinical utility. (ca.gov)
  • In this proposal we aim to generate iPSCs and subsequently photoreceptor precursor cells from a mouse model of retinal degeneration as well as patients with CEP290-associated LCA retinal degenerative disorder. (grantome.com)
  • Overexpression of Mbd3, a subunit of NuRD, inhibits induction of iPSCs by establishing heterochromatic features and silencing embryonic stem cell-specific marker genes, including Oct4 and Nanog. (edu.hk)
  • Additionally, because patient-specific iPSCs can be easily reprogrammed from differentiated somatic cells, they have a smaller risk of immunological rejection concomitant with cellular transplantation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be produced from somatic cells by ectopic expression of described transcription reasons (TFs). (sprentland.com)
  • C) Individual ES cell-specific surface area antigen staining of iPSCs. (sprentland.com)
  • epigenetic
  • Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs such as let-7 family miRNAs, revealed a common theme that miRNAs target diverse cellular processes including cell cycle regulators, signaling pathway effectors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers and shape their protein output. (wiley.com)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression patterns affecting cell function and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This analysis provides information about genes that are important for embryonic stem cell function and the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate their expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Superimposed on this genetic program, epigenetic mechanisms may also determine the composition of the stem cell transcriptome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods
  • The invention features compositions comprising in vitro generated beta cells capable of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, methods of inducing beta cell. (patents.com)
  • Protocols
  • In order to ensure the best results from tissue engineering treatment strategies, the cells used need to be characterized in detail, and in vitro cell expansion protocols need to be optimalized. (uio.no)
  • tissue-specific
  • In addition to the CEP290rd16 mouse model, generation of tissue specific retinal cell types from patients with CEP290-associated LCA will make a good model for studying the effectiveness of CEP290-replacement therapy. (grantome.com)
  • vitro
  • The growth and differentiation in vitro leg and wing imaginal disc cells from Drosophila melanogaster. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In vitro USSCs showed homogeneous differentiation into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and hematopoietic and neural cells including astrocytes and neurons that express neurofilament, sodium channel protein, and various neurotransmitter phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • We identified a rare, CD45 and HLA class II-negative stem cell candidate displaying robust in vitro proliferative capacity without spontaneous differentiation but with intrinsic and directable potential to develop into mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal cell fates. (rupress.org)
  • Using these cells, Shahdadfar showed that serum from the bone marrow donor could be used for in vitro cell expansion in stead of fetal calf serum, thus avoiding the risk of transfer of zoonoses and immune-stimulating xenogeneic proteins. (uio.no)
  • However, in the course of in vitro culture these cells lose the ability to produce the right constituents of hyaline extracellular matrix. (uio.no)
  • Isolation and transcription profiling of purified uncultured human stromal stem cells: alteration of gene expression after in vitro cell culture. (uio.no)
  • The cells in the spheres also retain the ability to differentiate in vitro to form cells representative of the three germline layers after five passages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • donor
  • Over the past years, studies have shown that after hematopoietic allo-transplantation with BM or G-CSF-mobilized blood, a small percentage of donor cells can also be detected as nonhematopoietic tissue ( 5 - 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • miRNAs
  • The combinatorial effects downstream of miRNA action allow miRNAs to modulate cell-fate decisions effectively. (wiley.com)
  • Because of their potential to regulate a large number of protein-encoding genes, miRNAs have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including development, stem cell regulation and human diseases. (biologists.org)
  • In this Commentary, we focus on miRNAs and their roles in mammalian stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • Following an introduction to the miRNA biogenesis pathway with an emphasis on its regulatory features, we then discuss what is currently known about the roles that miRNAs have in the differentiation and maintenance of embryonic and somatic stem cells of diverse origins. (biologists.org)
  • By contrast, the roles that miRNAs have in the maintenance of stem cells are less well understood. (biologists.org)
  • In this Commentary, we review the most recent developments in our understanding of the biological role of miRNAs in the differentiation and maintenance of mammalian stem cells, discuss lessons learned from recent studies and offer our views on future challenges. (biologists.org)
  • Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. (springer.com)
  • Several miRNAs have been suggested to target transcripts that directly or indirectly coordinate the cell cycle progression of stem cells. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, previous studies have shown that altered expression levels of miRNAs can contribute to pathological conditions, such as cancer, due to the loss of cell cycle regulation. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we discuss current knowledge of miRNAs regulatory role in cell cycle progression of stem cells. (springer.com)
  • We describe how specific miRNAs may control cell cycle associated molecules and checkpoints in embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells. (springer.com)
  • mammalian
  • The vector backbone also includes an SV40 origins for replication in mammalian cells expressing the SV40T antigen. (sprentland.com)
  • Neurons
  • These neurons release chemicals called neurotransmitters, which can affect target cells directly or indirectly. (eurekalert.org)
  • fetal
  • Next, they tested this combination of genes in a commercially available, genetically modified cell culture, IMR90 fetal fibroblasts. (lifeethics.org)
  • Dissociated cells can also revert to monolayer growth when cultured on extracellular matrix support (fibronectin or gelatin), or in medium containing fetal calf serum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fetal calf serum contains undefined factors, which may vary from batch to batch, and that may activate or inhibit stem cell differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The growth of cells in defined medium not only reduces variability, but also eliminates the need for costly and time consuming fetal calf serum batch testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation
  • Whereas external cues provided by, for example, the stem cell microenvironment or niche are required to regulate stem cell behavior, internal cues, such as transcriptional regulation, also govern the fate of stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, the precise mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated regulation of cell cycle in stem cells is still incompletely understood. (springer.com)
  • Transcription regulation constitutes a major component of biological activities in the cell. (stembook.org)
  • Stem cells are well-suited for the study of transcription regulation and TF function. (stembook.org)
  • homeostasis
  • ii) to investigate a putative neural stem/progenitor cell niche in the choroid plexus (CP), organ that plays crucial roles in cerebrospinal fluid secretion and brain homeostasis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • cellular
  • Somatic human stem cells which can be propagated in large quantities while retaining their ability to differentiate into different tissue cell types could serve as a highly valuable resource for the development of cellular therapeutics ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Peak moments of rest and digest may not be the best for making new cells, either, because when food is coming in, cellular processes related to digestion can create free radicals that can damage new cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a companion piece to an earlier post on the relationship between the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene and cellular senescence in aging, you might take a look at the research here that investigates the relationship between mTOR and the characteristic decline in stem cell activity that occurs with advancing age. (fightaging.org)
  • This review examines the role of key transcription factors in various stem cell types, and emphasizes on their control of downstream gene expression, which ultimately contributes to cellular function. (stembook.org)
  • genes
  • The Thomson team did not begin the basic research using mouse cells and did not simply go forward using the genes from the earlier experiments on mouse cells. (lifeethics.org)
  • Yet, each cell type expresses a unique subset of all genes encoded. (stembook.org)
  • phenotype
  • Altogether, though ADSCs seem more plastic than AFSCs, both provide valuable tools for developing novel therapeutic approaches and analyzing cell phenotype modulation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • As intrinsic determinants, transcription factors provide an entry point for uncovering how stem cells attain their phenotype, and how lineage-specific differentiation is initiated. (stembook.org)