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  • adult
  • There are two broad types of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which are solely present at the earliest stages of development, and somatic (or adult) stem cells, which appear during fetal development and remain throughout life. (springer.com)
  • Keith Henry Stockman Campbell (23 May 1954 - 5 October 2012), Professor of Animal Development at the University of Nottingham, was a British biologist who was a member of the team that in 1996 first cloned a mammal, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly, from fully differentiated adult mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, in 1996, a team led by Ian Wilmut with Keith Campbell as the main (66% of the credit) contributor used the same technique and shocked the world by successfully cloning a sheep from adult mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this gene silencing, adult heart muscle cells cannot divide readily to repair and regenerate after a heart attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later deterimined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4 were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs regulate critical pathways involved in stem cell function. (springer.com)
  • He supported the use of SCNT for the production of personalised stem cell therapies and for the study of human diseases and the use of cybrid embryo production to overcome the lack of human eggs available for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campbell believed all potential stem cell populations should be used for both basic and applied research which may provide basic scientific knowledge and lead to the development of cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene knockdown of Oct-4 promotes differentiation, thereby demonstrating a role for these factors in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a critical amount of Oct-4 is required to sustain stem cell self-renewal, and up- or down regulation induces divergent developmental programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factors Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog are part of a complex regulatory network with Oct-4 and Sox2 capable of directly regulating Nanog by binding to its promoter, and are essential for maintaining the self-renewing undifferentiated state of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, embryonic stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oct-4 is one of the transcription factors used to create induced pluripotent stem cells, together with Sox2, Klf4 and often c-Myc in mouse, demonstrating its capacity to induce an embryonic stem cell-like state. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • a) Cell cycle regulation in somatic cells: mitogen signaling through MAPK pathway activates cyclin D - CDK4/6 kinase activity hypophosphorylating Rb family member proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperphosphorylated Rb family member proteins are unable to interact with E2F factors, allowing them to activate transcription of genes necessary in the progression of cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • There is cell cycle-independent expression of cyclin E - CDK2 maintaining the hyperphosphorylated levels of Rb family member proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Since they share common cellular sites and are both required for microtubule-associated processes, it is possible that these proteins function by interacting directly or through other proteins to coordinate microtubule nucleation in the cell. (rupress.org)
  • 4 However, we have recently demonstrated that cyclin A1 associates with the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and E2F-1 in leukemia cells in vivo and the interaction can change functional properties of the involved proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In 1997, Ritchie and Campbell in collaboration with PPL (Pharmaceutical Proteins Limited) created another sheep named "Polly", created from genetically altered skin cells containing a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific events during cycle division such as microtubule formation and chromatin remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins (Known as histones) that are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the required proteins and growth are complete, the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endodermal cells differentiate and together with Wunen proteins they induce the migration through the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MPF is also called the M phase kinase because of its ability to phosphorylate target proteins at a specific point in the cell cycle and thus control their ability to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Campbell had a key role in the creation of Dolly, as he had the crucial idea of co-ordinating the stages of the "cell cycle" of the donor somatic cells and the recipient eggs and using diploid quiscent or "G0" arrested somatic cells as nuclear donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of the blastocyst.The first animal that is developed by this technique is Dolly, the sheep in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • In 2000, after joining PPL Ltd, Campbell and his PPL team (based in North America) were successful in producing the world's first piglets by Somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the so-called cloning technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response is quick, as it involves regulation of molecules that are already present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pheromones used in mating type recognition are often peptides, but sometimes trisporic acid or other molecules, recognized by cellular receptors on the opposite cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the migratory path of the PGCs, the orientation of underlying cells and their secreted molecules such as fibronectin play an important role. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Derivation, characterization, and in vitro differentiation of canine embryonic stem cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on these observations, we propose that Myt1 serves unique Cdk1 regulatory functions required for efficient coupling of cell differentiation with cell cycle progression. (biologists.org)
  • MDM2 depletion in the absence of p53 promoted the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and diminished clonogenic survival of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the level of Oct-4 expression in mice is vital for regulating pluripotency and early cell differentiation since one of its main functions is to keep the embryo from differentiating. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • spindle
  • The numbers of centrioles, chromosomes, and yeast spindle bodies in the cell are strictly regulated: one copy gives rise to a single new copy. (genetics.org)
  • organism
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of somatic diploids circumvents the process of gamete formation during the sexual reproduction cycle and instead creates variation within the somatic cells of an already developed organism, such as a fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the model organism Drosophila, pole cells passively move from the posterior end of the embryo to the posterior midgut because of the infolding of the blastoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous cell carc
  • Mouse double minute 4 variants modify susceptibility to risk of recurrence in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. (nih.gov)
  • MDM4 polymorphisms may, individually or in combination, confer an independent risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx recurrence, particularly in HPV-positive SCCOP patients. (nih.gov)
  • transition
  • The duration of the cell cycle and the transition from one phase to the next is highly variable between different cell types. (springer.com)
  • clarification needed] MPF must be activated in order for the cell to transition from G2 to M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells. (nih.gov)
  • A tri-serine cluster within the topoisomerase IIalpha-interaction domain of the BLM helicase is required for regulating chromosome breakage in human cells. (nih.gov)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect has also been seen with the Thomson reprogramming factors, reverting human fibroblast cells to iPSCs through Oct-4, along with Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from which they originate. (springer.com)
  • Mouse embryos that are Oct-4-deficient or have low expression levels of Oct-4 fail to form the inner cell mass, lose pluripotency and differentiate into trophectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • I would thus urge you to attend particularly to the comments on Fig4 from ref#2 (bisulfite sequencing in PGCs at different cell cycle states) and as raised from both referees employ PCNA staining/short BrdU-pulse in Fig 5d and e. (docplayer.net)
  • mutants
  • In addition, why v-myb and deletional mutants of c-myb are oncogenic in hematopoietic cells but not in other tissues is unknown. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This can partly be attributed to ectopic division of germline-associated somatic cells in myt1 mutants, suggesting that Myt1 serves a role in regulating exit from the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • By several different assays, it is shown in this paper that two non-phosphorylatable mutants of hCDC6 are unable to prevent DNA replication in transfected or microinjected cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of CDC6 is not required for cells to enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • CDK2
  • The dependency of p45 SKP2 -p19 SKP1 complex formation on cyclin A-CDK2 may ensure tight coordination of the activities of the cell cycle clock with those of a potential ubiquitin conjugation pathway. (embopress.org)
  • Since mammalian CDC6 is phosphorylated by Cyclin A/CDK2, and Cyclin A/CDK2 kinase activity is required for entry into the S phase of the cell cycle, it is conceivable that CDC6 is an essential substrate for Cyclin A/CDK2, and that the phosphorylation of CDC6 is required for cells to initiate DNA synthesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Phosphorylation of CDC6 and MCM4 by the cyclin A2-CDK2 complex prevents re-replication of DNA during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Title: Linc00152 promotes malignant progression of glioma stem cells by regulating miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (nih.gov)
  • If the DSB occurs after DNA replication has completed proceeding S phase of the cell cycle, the DSB repair pathway will use homologous recombination by pairing with the newly synthesized daughter strand to repair the break. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, this type of receptor is known as a dependence receptor because the unbound pathway is usually apoptotic, meaning that cell survival depends on ligand presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • CDC25A plays a novel role in regulating the malignant behavior of glioma stem cells as a part of Linc00152/miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A axis. (nih.gov)
  • phosphorylation
  • The phosphorylation levels of Rb/p105 are dependent upon the CDK activity present in the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with the notion that CDC6 phosphorylation is not essential for S phase entry, it has been shown that phosphorylation of Cdc18p in S.pombe is not required for cells to enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • In a number of cell lines (including HeLa cells, U-2 OS osteosarcoma cells and Hs 578Bst breast epithelial cells), ectopic expression of cyclin A increases hormone-dependent and hormone-independent transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor. (sdbonline.org)
  • control
  • Comparatively little is known about the significance of each of these interactions for cell cycle control. (embopress.org)
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although transcriptional determination has usually been considered as a binary on-off control system, they found that the precise level of Oct-4 governs 3 distinct fates of ES cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of a specific function for DCC that seemed to have little to do with cell cycle control, the low somatic mutation rate and the absence of cancer predisposition in DCC heterozygotes were fairly discouraging evidence for DCC's putative tumour suppressor status. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubule
  • The use of microtubule-damaging agents in certain cancer therapies, together with the lethality of cells deficient in the mitotic inhibitor Wee1, might provide more efficient chemotherapies. (genetics.org)
  • quiescent
  • By monitoring total cellular histone synthesis at various times after quiescent cells were stimulated to proliferate at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures, a direct correlation was found between the rates of DNA and histone synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • After the mitotic phase, the daughter cells re-enter the G1 phase or go into the quiescent state. (springer.com)
  • apoptosis
  • Cell cycle-dependent Cdc25C phosphatase determines cell survival by regulating apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. (nih.gov)
  • A double-stranded gap in DNA will also prevent replication from proceeding, resulting in an incomplete copy of that specific chromosome, targeting the cell for apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • In this part of interphase, the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins (Known as histones) that are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA) in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Johnson DG, Ohtani K, Nevins JR. Autoregulatory control of E2F1 expression in response to positive and negative regulators of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that slows down the cell cycle by prohibiting progression from G1 phase to S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then permeabilized to allow target accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • A paradox exists, however, in that cells exhibit diverse responses to varying stimuli and that cells sharing identical sets of DNA such as in multicellular organisms can have a variety of distinct functions and phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • The kit can be used to track the pluripotent potential of human embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent (iPS) cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • The methodology to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) affords the opportunity to generate cells specific to the individual providing the host tissue. (jove.com)
  • This manuscript illustrates a protocol for efficiently creating integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood using episomal plasmids and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. (jove.com)
  • Once iPSC colonies exhibit typical human embryonic stem cell (hESC) morphology, they are gently transferred to individual iMEF-coated tissue culture plates for continued growth and expansion. (jove.com)
  • A few years ago, the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) ushered in a new era in biomedicine. (jove.com)
  • receptor
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • 1992
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm cells
  • The degree of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells can predict outcomes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its expansion intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This means that in these cell types long term tetracycline inducible expression can be achieved. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • A) Western blot analysis of SH2B3 expression and JAK-STAT signaling in lymphoblastoid cells from the proband (noted as SH2B3 D231fs/D231fs*), the affected sibling (SH2B3 D231fs/D231fs), and an SH2B3 wild-type healthy control. (nih.gov)
  • B) Western blot analysis of SH2B3 expression and JAK-STAT signaling in JURKAT T-ALL cells expressing SH2B3 targeting shRNAs (pLKO-shSH2B3) or an inactive control shRNA (pLKO-shCTRL). (nih.gov)
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • Replication may also be blocked and/or the cell may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppression
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spontaneous or accidental DNA fragmentation is fragmentation that gradually accumulates in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA fragmentation was first documented by Williamson in 1970 when he observed discrete oligomeric fragments occurring during cell death in primary neonatal liver cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • For DNA fragmentation, sonication is commonly applied at burst cycles using a probe-type sonicator. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • Specifically, successful reprogramming was demonstrated from a single vial of blood or less using cells expressing the early lineage marker CD34 as well as from unpurified peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (jove.com)
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • progenitor
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • restriction
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential
  • C) Differential growth curves of SH2B3 wild-type and patient-derived SH2B3 mutant lymphoblastoid cells grown in 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing media. (nih.gov)
  • E) Differential cell growth of SH2B3 wild-type and patient-derived SH2B3 mutant lymphoblastoid cells in standard (10% FBS) and low serum (1% FBS) conditions. (nih.gov)
  • epigenetic
  • Epigenomics is the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell, known as the epigenome. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • membrane organization and cell organelles. (blogspot.com)
  • Food vacuoles are formed through phagocytosis and typically follow a particular path through the cell as their contents are digested and broken down by lysosomes so the substances the vacuole contains are then small enough to diffuse through the membrane of the food vacuole into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others are the alveoli, small vesicles under the cell membrane that are packed against it to form a pellicle maintaining the cell's shape, which varies from flexible and contractile to rigid. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • TUNEL
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)