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  • development
  • These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, we focus on the cloning event occurring through the reprogramming process and its ability to let us analyze the development of complex disease-harboring somatic mosaicism. (ahajournals.org)
  • nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. (biologists.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that evolutionarily distant organisms utilize conserved factors to regulate early germ cell development and survival, and that these factors include members of the nanos and pumilio gene families. (biologists.org)
  • induced plur
  • Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI, President Pann Ghill Suh) announced on Mar. 4 that its research team led by principal researcher Yoichi Kosodo developed a technology to mass produce cerebral cortex neurons utilizing Induced pluripotent Stem Cells. (news-medical.net)
  • A joint research group centered around Professor Hideyuki Okano and Associate Professor Jun Kohyama, Department of Physiology of the Keio University School of Medicine, together with a research group of Eisai Co., Ltd. has identified a compound that has the potential to be a treatment for Parkinson's disease by using dopaminergic neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from patients with familial Parkinson's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • An interview with Dr. Sheng Ding about using a modified version of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to produce induced pluripotent stem cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Since their discovery in 2006, induced pluripotent stem cells are a glimmer of hope for many diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • The two primary methods involve either the replacement of oocyte nuclei with adult somatic cell nuclei-a process known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-or the introduction, typically by viruses, of a cocktail of specific transcription factors to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (news-medical.net)
  • Reproductive
  • These technologies hold great promise, including the possibility of editing the disease-causing DNA within the non-reproductive ("somatic") cells of the body. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the editing tools need to be delivered selectively to the cells within the body affected by the disease while avoiding other cells, such as the reproductive cells. (nih.gov)
  • Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat , Triticum Aestivum L. , a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Dr Srivastava also said that this is the first report in the world across the species in which somatic cells have been isolated from urine, resulting in a cloned calf. (thebeefsite.com)
  • It's impossible to recommend anything specific without knowing the species you're working with, but something related to dosage compensation would be the way I'd go - Xist for example, but surely you know the gender of the cells anyway? (protocol-online.org)
  • The human cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE-46 (HSPDE4A4B) expressed in transfected COS7 cells occurs as both particulate and cytosolic species that exhibit distinct kinetics of inhibition by the antidepressant rolipram" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • For example, in mammals, somatic cells make up all the internal organs, skin, bones, blood and connective tissue, while mammalian germ cells give rise to spermatozoa and ova which fuse during fertilization to produce a cell called a zygote, which divides and differentiates into the cells of an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • Collectively, the authors provide a logical framework for understanding how oocyte factors can de-differentiate committed cells and a platform for studying and discovering optimal combinations to increase the efficiency, reproducibility, and safety of this technique. (news-medical.net)
  • The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte (egg cell) and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic (body) cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • As discussed in the paper Guidelines for Using the DHI Somatic Cell Count Program: The results of many studies suggest that cows with SCC of less than 200,000 are not likely to be infected with major mastitis pathogens, but cows with SCC above 300,000 are probably infected (Smith, 1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known as the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal from an adult somatic cell, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The only difference is caused by any mitochondrial DNA that is retained in the ovum, which is different from the cell that donated the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it 'deprogrammed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ovum, now containing the somatic cell's nucleus, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Breaking new ground, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine in Münster, Germany, have succeeded in obtaining somatic stem cells from fully differentiated somatic cells. (phys.org)
  • He described the cytoplasmic DNA isolated from mouse liver cells after culture as characterized by DNA fragments with a molecular weight consisting of multiples of 135 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Review conceptual and technical aspects of direct reprogramming of somatic cells, such as fibroblasts and astrocytes, into induced neurons. (abcam.com)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • But further research of the complex regulation of pluripotent stem cell identity revealed unexpected difficulties. (news-medical.net)
  • After a brief stay at the Karolinska Institute to acquaint himself with the rapid developments of the neural stem cell field, Benedikt returned to Munich and obtained a position as a lecturer and senior lecturer at the Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich. (abcam.com)
  • So we joined forces with the authorities to develop very stringent guidlines to ensure that stem cell therapeutics will also fulfil the highest quality demands in the future', explained Christine Günther. (mtbeurope.info)
  • The stem cell products are manufactured in Class C and B cleanroom suites with integrated Class A areas. (mtbeurope.info)
  • that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Key insights into how sperm and egg cells are formed have been discovered by scientists, shedding light on the earliest stages of their development. (news-medical.net)
  • Every other cell type in the mammalian body-apart from the sperm and ova, the cells from which they are made (gametocytes) and undifferentiated stem cells-is a somatic cell: internal organs, skin, bones, blood, and connective tissue are all made up of somatic cells. (phys.org)
  • The degree of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells can predict outcomes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its expansion intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • It may also label cells having DNA damaged by other means than in the course of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method has subsequently been improved dramatically and if performed correctly should only identify cells in the last phase of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of apoptosis and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptotic DNA fragmentation is a natural fragmentation that cells perform in apoptosis (programmed cell death). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • As an organism grows and responds to its environment, genes in its cells are constantly turning on and off, with different patterns of gene expression in different cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The rationale for these experiments is based on observations concerning the relationship between chromatin structure and gene expression in somatic cells. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • In the adaptive immune system, the three preeminent sets of genes are those that code for the Mhc, T-cell receptor (Tcr), and B-cell receptor (Bcr, the antibodies) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class I genes were discovered in 1936 (the year Jan Klein was born) as coding for blood group (red blood cell) antigens, which, however, were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal protein then the associated neuraminidase enzyme activity is activated and responding cells can have altered signal transduction involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases and regulated matrix metallopeptidase production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of the GLB1-derived elastin binding protein and the elastin receptor complex to influence cell proliferation appears to be indirect and involve removal of sialic acid from extracellular and cell surface proteins such as growth factor receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 1 TIR domains are receptors for interleukins that are produced by macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells and all have extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • His laboratory focuses on lineage progression of adult neural stem cells and on direct conversion of brain resident cells into induced neurons. (abcam.com)
  • Hello, and thank you for joining us for today's webinar: Direct Reprogramming of Somatic Cells into Induced Neurons. (abcam.com)
  • BB: Thank you, Sarah, for this kind introduction and thanks to Abcam for organizing this webinar, and thank you, the audience, for attending this webinar about Direct Reprogramming of Somatic Cells into Induced Neurons. (abcam.com)
  • protein
  • The S-Gal protein is a peripheral membrane protein that functions as part of an elastin receptor complex on the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation, TLRs recruit adapter proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of the immune cell in order to propagate the antigen-induced signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Primary SRCC tumors are most often found in the glandular cells of the stomach (SRCC originates in the stomach in 90 percent of patients), and less frequently in the breast, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • A series of experiments, first turning a mouse embryo green by fluorescently tagging STAP cells, then videotaping the transformation of T-cells into pluripotent cells, finally convinced skeptics that the results were real. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. (biologists.org)
  • Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and a loss of germ cells from the gonads. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling with a critical role in the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid progenitors. (nih.gov)
  • Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular DCs are a non-migratory population found in primary and secondary follicles of the B cell areas of lymph nodes, spleen, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction between FDCs precursors and lymphoid cells mediated by TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) is crucial for normal FDC development and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal lymphoid tissue recirculating resting B cells migrate through the FDC networks, whereas antigen-activated B cells are intercepted and undergo clonal expansion within the FDC networks, generating germinal centers (GC). (wikipedia.org)
  • FDCs are among main producers of the chemokine CXCL13 which attracts and organises lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • molecules
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 (CD54)-LFA-1 (CD11a) and VCAM-VLA-4 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exogenous DNA molecules bind to the cell membrane of the head of the sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exogenous DNA interacts with the DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) that are present on the surface of the sperm cell.3 Spermatozoa are naturally protected against the intrusion of exogenous DNA molecules by an inhibitory factor present in mammals' seminal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skepticism arises based on the assumption that evolutionary chaos could arise if sperm cells could act as vectors for exogenous DNA.4 Reasonable assumption tells us that because reproductive tracts contain free DNA molecules, sperm cells should be highly resistant to the risk of picking up exogenous DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • the inhibitory factor in seminal fluid that prevents binding to foreign DNA molecules and a sperm endogenous nuclease activity that is triggered upon interaction of sperm cells with foreign DNA molecules.4 These protections give reason to believe that unintentional interactions between sperm and exogenous genetic sequences is kept to a minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supposedly, this separation from the sites of earliest antigen processing and capture provide a protected environment in which opsonized antigens can be displayed for a long time without being proteolyzed or removed by phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noncognate[clarification needed] B cells play a significant role as an antigen transporter to FDCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm cells
  • This factor blocks the binding of sperm cells and exogenous DNA because in the presence of the inhibitory factor, DBPs lose their ability to bind to exogenous DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of this inhibitory factor, DBPs on sperm cells are able to interact with DNA and can then translocate the DNA into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike DCs, FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of mesenchymal origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Johnson DG, Ohtani K, Nevins JR. Autoregulatory control of E2F1 expression in response to positive and negative regulators of cell cycle progression. (springer.com)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A down-regulation of E-cadherin is essential for the initiation and progression a gastric signet ring cell cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. (jove.com)
  • Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. (beingwellhomoeopathy.com)
  • Temperature
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive
  • B) Western blot analysis of SH2B3 expression and JAK-STAT signaling in JURKAT T-ALL cells expressing SH2B3 targeting shRNAs (pLKO-shSH2B3) or an inactive control shRNA (pLKO-shCTRL). (nih.gov)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • spontaneously
  • In the early 2000s, Charles Vacanti and Martin Vacanti conducted studies that led them to the idea that stem cells - spore-like cells - could be spontaneously recovered from ordinary tissues that are stressed via mechanical injury or increased acidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • however, it has been found that a colon carcinoma cell known as HCC2998 causes an increase in differentiated tumor production. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study suggests that when signet-ring cells are found in a breast tumor, the presence of gastric cancer should also be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • In mice lacking B cells, or with blocked TNF-a and lymphotoxin (LT) production, cells with FDC phenotype are missing. (wikipedia.org)
  • After modifying the technique, Obokata was able to show that white blood cells from newborn mice could be transformed into cells that behaved much like stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein synthesis
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • spleen
  • Haruko Obokata claimed that STAP cells were produced by exposing CD45+ murine spleen cells to certain stresses including an acidic medium with a pH of 5.7 for half an hour. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • The technique for producing STAP cells was subsequently studied by Obokata at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), while she was studying as a post doc under Charles Vacanti, and then at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • On August 5, 2014, Yoshiki Sasai-Obokata's supervisor at RIKEN and one of the coauthors on the STAP cell papers-was found dead at a RIKEN facility after an apparent suicide by hanging. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAP cells injected into mouse embryos grew into a variety of tissues and organs found throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • SRCCs are dedifferentiated adenocarcinomas that lose the capability for cell-cell interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form a stable network due to intercellular connections between FDCs processes and intimate interaction with follicular B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Plasma cells , also called plasma B cells , plasmocytes , plasmacytes , or effector B cells , are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmablasts secrete more antibodies than B cells, but less than plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma . (wikipedia.org)
  • TUNEL
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • stimulation
  • The stimulation of CXCR5 on B cells upregulates LT production, which leads to FDCs activation and stimulates further CXCL13 secretion, thus generating a positive feed-forward loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • preparations
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vectors
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (jove.com)