Loading...
  • Biology
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production , affinity tagging , single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (readtiger.com)
  • genes
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes , but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters , non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (readtiger.com)
  • gene
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning . (readtiger.com)
  • eggs
  • Laws and ethical regulations from the National Academy of Sciences and the International Society for Stem Cell Research prohibit monetary compensation for females who donate their eggs for embryonic stem cell research. (howstuffworks.com)
  • And given the low rate of success with embryonic cloning in general, researchers need an abundance of eggs if they hope to achieve progress. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As described on the slide, the researchers were able to combine 434 eggs with nuclei. (bioedonline.org)
  • They also provide human eggs for cloning. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • John B. Gurdon took the nuclei from tadpoles and injected them into unfertilized eggs. (studymode.com)
  • The first person to successfully demonstrate reprogramming was John Gurdon, who in 1962 demonstrated that differentiated somatic cells could be reprogrammed back into an embryonic state when he managed to obtain swimming tadpoles following the transfer of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells into enucleated frog eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of spontaneous mutations is significantly lower in advanced male germ cells than in somatic cell types from the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female germ cells also show a mutation frequency that is lower than that in corresponding somatic cells and similar to that in male germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings appear to reflect employment of more effective mechanisms to limit the initial occurrence of spontaneous mutations in germ cells than in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells are cells that have gone through the differentiation process and are not germ cells. (asu.edu)
  • After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Embryo cloning occurs when sperm and egg cells are mixed in a glass dish. (essaypride.com)
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • totipotent
  • Every cell is totipotent, and individuality is never resolved. (slate.com)
  • Was there a specific reason for thinking that this cell nucleus would be totipotent and work well in this experiment? (biologists.org)
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent-(iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only cells from an embryo at the morula stage or earlier are truly totipotent, meaning that they are able to form all cell types including placental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole organism
  • West agrees with pro-lifers that personhood prior to birth is defined by two things: totipotentiality-the ability to become a whole organism-and the resolution of individuality. (slate.com)
  • eukaryotic
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Endosymbiotic theory - The evolutionary theory that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal cell - Eukaryotic cells belonging to kingdom Animalia, characteristically having no cell wall or chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cell - Eukaryotic cells belonging to kingdom Plantae and having chloroplasts, cellulose cell walls, and large central vacuoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protist - A highly variable kingdom of eukaryotic organisms which are mostly unicellular and not plants, animals, or fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria, as a major energy factory of the cell, was previously a free-living prokaryote that invades the eukaryotic cells by the endosymbiosis theory, which gained acceptance around the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • that egg cell has the capability to replicate -- and to 'differentiate' (change) into different kinds of specialized cells (e.g., heart and kidney). (libretexts.org)
  • In part, this requires that the cell used for cloning be able to revert to the 'primitive' state typical of an egg cell -- able to replicate and differentiate. (libretexts.org)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell, they are used in the development of medical treatments for a wide range of conditions. (wikipedia.org)