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  • genetic
  • Haploid ES cells elegantly combine the advantages of haploidy and pluripotency and offer a unique in vitro system for genetic analyses of molecular, cellular and developmental events in various cell lineages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • From the first moment, the genetic code in concert with the cellular environment, orchestrates the myriad of messages necessary to assemble the human form. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • In addition, certain stem cell lines are developed using a cloning technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer, which can generate cells that are an exact genetic match to a patient. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Such stem cells, following differentiation into the disease-relevant cell types, would serve as the key substrate for disease models to study the patient's condition, drug discovery to slow or stop cellular degeneration, and cell replacement therapies after any intrinsic disease-causing genetic defects were repaired (see Figure 1 ). (stembook.org)
  • And, fourth, techniques for repairing any intrinsic disease-causing genetic defects and transplantation of the repaired, differentiated cells into the patient. (stembook.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by selectively inserting and forcing the expression of certain genetic factors that cause a cell to return to a state of pluripotency. (spusa.org)
  • In January 2007, researchers from the Harvard Stem Cell Institute analyzed patterns of genetic recombination in parthenogenetically derived mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines . (highlighthealth.com)
  • For example, ATC G ATCG and ATC A ATCG represent two alleles: G and A. SNPs make up about 90% of all human genetic variation and occur every 100 to 300 bases along the 3-billion-base human genome . (highlighthealth.com)
  • The first scenario would preclude the possibility of changing one type of mature cell into another because the cell would no longer contain the genetic wherewithal to perform all possible functions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • therapies
  • The production of cellular therapies requires the optimization of four steps: first, isolating and culturing cells that can be readily obtained from a patient in a non-invasive fashion. (stembook.org)
  • This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease. (ukessays.com)
  • Cell therapy and tissue engineering are part of the broader field of regenerative medicine, whose aim is the delivery of safe, effective and consistent therapies. (ukessays.com)
  • ScienceDaily (Dec. 3, 2007) - A noninvasive, polarized light microscope invented at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) played a crucial role in a recent breakthrough in embryonic stem-cell research aimed at developing medical therapies. (blogspot.com)
  • Since the first isolation of usable stem cells, tremendous scientific interest has flourished over the potential of stem cell research to improve our understanding of human development and disease and potentially for cell-based therapies to cure a wide range of diseases. (spusa.org)
  • However, to be used for therapies, embryonic stem cells must be differentiated into specialized cells because undifferentiated stem cells are known to cause tumors. (spusa.org)
  • iii] Likely the most publicly hailed potential of embryonic stem cells is in cell-based therapies. (spusa.org)
  • We describe ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, emphasizing that ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is a major factor that may have limited the development of hESC-based clinical therapies. (medsci.org)
  • As we discuss here, technical advances in the propagation and manipulation of human ES cells have improved our understanding of their growth and differentiation, providing the potential to investigate early human development and to develop new clinical therapies. (biologists.org)
  • In the near future, as the stem cell field progresses closer to the clinic, additional ethical issues are likely to arise concerning the clinical translation of basic stem cell knowledge into reasonably safe, effective, and accessible patient therapies. (jci.org)
  • Although much work remains to determine whether nuclear reprogramming techniques will prove safe and effective enough for clinical use, Gurdon's and Yamanaka's discoveries have opened potential avenues toward personalized cell-replacement therapies. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells capable of differentiation into various cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through proliferation and differentiation, a single cell, the zygote, can give rise to a complex organism composed of many types of cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gene expression and differentiation profiles in human NT-ESCs were similar to embryo-derived ESCs, suggesting efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Third, the directed differentiation of those patient-specific pluripotent cells into the cell type relevant to their disease. (stembook.org)
  • An interesting theory put forward is that stem cells might be terminal differentiation cells with the potential to display diverse cell types, depending on the host niche. (ukessays.com)
  • Scientists would be able to compare drugs more accurately if they can grow many identical cells on which to test them, though scientists will need to greatly expand their understanding of stem cell differentiation to be able to reliably generate pure populations of differentiated stem cells. (spusa.org)
  • viii] Some serious conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are caused by abnormal cell division and differentiation. (spusa.org)
  • This second question is particularly important because the answer profoundly affects how we devise strategies to manipulate ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • If hES cell differentiation does not closely resemble mouse embryonic development, a more empirical approach will be needed to identify the signaling pathways that control hES cell differentiation, as we discuss later. (biologists.org)
  • In this article, we review aspects of primate embryology that are relevant to ES cell biology, survey the similarities and differences between mouse and primate ES cells, and then discuss recent advances in hES cell technology, and in understanding primate ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers have discovered that chemotherapy provides the perfect backdrop for 'sleeping' cancer to churn out deadly cancer stem cells. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Researchers found that modifying blood stem cells to raise their levels of a T cell-blocking protein called PD-L1 reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Had it been the latter (a technique almost universally condemned as unethical), the researchers could have attempted to initiate a pregnancy by implanting the cloned embryos in a womb. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Around the world, researchers and politicians have struggled to develop guidelines that will allow for ethical and socially responsible stem cell research. (spusa.org)
  • In recent years, researchers have been exploring the potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells) as possible substitutes or supplements to embryonic stem cells. (spusa.org)
  • At this time researchers are still uncertain of what clinical differences may exist between iPS cells and embryonic stem cells, meaning that, at this time, further research on both kinds of stem cells is necessary to fully understand the medical potential of these new discoveries. (spusa.org)
  • Researchers examined Hwang's cell line using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and found recombination patterns that are consistent with its derivation from a parthenogenetically derived embryo. (highlighthealth.com)
  • However, most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use this technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. (bootstrike.com)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • Stem cells have raised tremendous expectations among the medical doctors, researchers, patients, and the general public due to their capacity to differentiate into a broad range of cell types. (medsci.org)
  • The researchers concluded that permanent nuclear changes occur as cells specialize. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Scientists
  • But even he concedes that over time there could be pressure to change the law to allow the cloning of people and that scientists may still be pushing to do this. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • Scientists show how drug-laden nanoparticles can find and destroy cancer stem cells that hide in tissue for years before causing the cancer to return. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • As has been pointed out by many scientists, the use of genes and retroviruses known to cause cancer in mammals and retroviruses known to have the ability to disrupt the normal DNA function and stimulate the birth of cancer cells (4, 5) makes it questionable if iPS cells can ever be used in regenerative medicine, especially cell therapy. (blogspot.com)
  • Yesterday, scientists in South Korea announced - through publication in the Journal Science Express - the first successful cloning of a human embryo, and the subsequent derivation of a line of stem cells from that clone. (washingtontimes.com)
  • To produce the cloned embryos, scientists used somatic nuclear transfer, a technique long used to create animal clones. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Instead, the scientists developed the embryos to the point at which they contained pluripotent stem cells that could be isolated. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Cloning" is an umbrella term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review offers stem cell scientists, clinicians and patient's useful information and could be used as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical application of stem cells. (medsci.org)
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • The 2009 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors two scientists for their discoveries concerning nuclear reprogramming. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • vitro
  • The following selection markers for in vitro-produced porcine embryos were investigated: the timing, pattern and evenness of the first cleavage and the timing of the second cleavage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of the age of cell donor animal on in vitro development of ovine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Notably, these disease-relevant patient cells can also be used for in vitro disease modeling which may yield new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discovery. (stembook.org)
  • While some success has been reported recently in the in vitro modeling of degenerative diseases by introducing known disease-causing alleles into ES cells (Di Giorgio et al. (stembook.org)
  • Progress in genotyping in vitro‚Äźproduced embryos: are we close? (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. (hamiltonthorne.com)
  • It is widely anticipated that human embryonic stem (ES) cells will serve as an experimental model for studying early development in our species, and, conversely, that studies of development in model systems, the mouse in particular, will inform our efforts to manipulate human stem cells in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Conversely, will our understanding of the molecular regulation of mammalian development based on studies in the mouse provide us with a framework to control hES cells in vitro, enabling us to develop the many important clinical applications that are envisioned for these cells in the future? (biologists.org)
  • transgenic
  • These well-characterized ESC lines not only will enrich our understanding of pluripotency programs in the ungulate species but also will provide a useful resource for the creation of transgenic ungulate models of human diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Germ cell research has produced enormous advances in recent years and more recently has entered into an explosive phase of new discoveries with the introduction of transgenic technologies and nuclear cloning. (springer.com)
  • tissue
  • Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stem cells have unrestricted potential to divide and this strength is used for the regeneration and repair of cells within the body during tissue damage. (ukessays.com)
  • The human body has an endogenous system of regeneration and repair through stem cells, where stem cells can be found almost in every type of tissue. (ukessays.com)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells, in theory, can be induced to become any type of cell, tissue or organ. (blogspot.com)
  • These can then be used as treatment in human and veterinary medicine such as patient-tailored tissue grafts, as well as allowing the possibility of cloning entire organisms such as Dolly the Sheep. (edu.au)
  • Tissue stem cells are multipotent meaning they are usually restricted to forming the cell types of the tissue or organ from which they are found. (wesrch.com)
  • If a more in-depth knowledge on the derivation, advantages and limitations of the specific types of pluripotent and tissue stem cells is required, then the more complex and detailed activities will provide teachers with that support. (wesrch.com)
  • Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. (jci.org)
  • At present, new ethical issues are beginning to emerge around the derivation and use of other hES cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue. (jci.org)
  • Dolly
  • Dolly the Sheep was groundbreaking and highly controversial, raising debates amongst laymen, theologians and government officials on the seemingly inevitable cloning of human beings. (edu.au)
  • This technique is currently the basis for cloning animals (such as the famous Dolly the sheep ), and in theory could be used to clone humans. (bootstrike.com)
  • trophoblast
  • Highlights include the identification and characterization of Oct-4, germline chromatin silencing by RNAi, cDNA subtraction and cloning in the field of trophoblast/placental development, and selective ablation. (springer.com)
  • The surrounding shell of trophoblast cells do not - they give rise to the placenta, instead. (edu.au)
  • embryology
  • In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life. (bootstrike.com)
  • Our understanding of mammalian embryology, and of pluripotent stem cells, is based chiefly on studies in the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology , 2nd ed. (lifeissues.net)
  • G.W. Corner, "The Observed Embryology of Human Single-Ovum Twins and Other Multiple Births," American Journal of Obstetrics and. (lifeissues.net)
  • germ
  • Michael Shamblott's group at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine used primordial germ cells from aborted fetuses. (edu.au)
  • lines
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • However, no stem cell lines were obtained from this single cloned blastomere, since all the material was used for the DNA analyses. (blogspot.com)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. (blogspot.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Serious doubts have been raised about the sufficiency of those lines, since they have been exposed to potential contamination by mouse feeder cells. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The second advantage of autologous ES cells over existing lines concerns the ability to create effective disease models. (stembook.org)
  • It is extremely hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of precisely known chemical composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001 US President George W. Bush authorises selected ES cell lines to be used for human research, however other cell lines are not allowed. (edu.au)
  • Most of these cell lines are subsequently found to be non-viable and of no use. (edu.au)
  • Robert Lanza's group established ES cell lines using only one cell from an eight-cell mouse blastomere, which maintained the embryo's viability in the womb. (edu.au)
  • In this scenario, the disease specific stem cell lines would be studied in order to better understand the disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • destruction
  • In this article the author focuses on the court ruling which emphasized the preclusion of an embryonic stem cell research project from receiving federal fundings by the Dickey-Wicker Amendment if one step of the project results in the destruction of an embryo in the U.S. (ebscohost.com)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • diseases
  • An essay is presented on the delay of the progress of embryonic stem cell research for the treatment of various diseases due to debates regarding the use of human embryos in the research. (ebscohost.com)
  • On the other hand proponents for change argue instead that embryos may have to be sacrificed for the sake of research which could lead to major breakthroughs in a host of diseases and ailments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • Because stem cells have the potential to generate fresh, healthy cells of nearly any type, there is interest in exploring their use to treat and cure various diseases. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • The generation of patient-specific embryonic stem cells would revolutionize our understanding of human diseases (1). (blogspot.com)
  • Health care professionals have long been excited by the potential that such cells have for treating a wide range of diseases. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Reprogrammed cells also afford novel approaches toward understanding currently inscrutable diseases and for screening drugs to thwart these conditions. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Abstract
  • J.D. Biggers, "Arbitrary Partitions of Prenatal Life," Human Reproduction 5, no. 1 (1990): 1-6, available from http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/1 (accessed February 4, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • An Optimized Protocol of a Human-to-Cattle Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer," Fertility and Sterility 82, no. 4 (October 2004): 960-962, available from http://www.fertstert.org/article/PIIS0015028204012919/abstract (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • Pronuclear, Cleavage and Blastocyst Histories in the Attempted Preimplantation Diagnosis of the Human Hydatidiform Mole," Human Reproduction 7, no. 7, (1992): 994-998, available from http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/7/7/994 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • J.P. Geraedts, G.M. de Wert, "Cloning: Applications in Humans 1: Technical Aspects," Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 108, no. 4 (April 2001): 145-150, available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11383357 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)