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  • genetic
  • This is done by selectively inserting and forcing the expression of certain genetic factors that cause a cell to return to a state of pluripotency. (spusa.org)
  • In this approach the cells are transfected, selected and tested for the genetic modification prior to NT. (expertsmind.com)
  • The Bush stem cell lines were derived more than eight years ago using old-fashioned techniques and have since then accrued many serious genetic abnormalities. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • There is the possibility that cures to life-threatening diseases could be found through genetic engineering in somatic cell manipulation, for example. (essaypride.com)
  • This cell contains a different set of genetic instructions (resulting in an alternative pattern of gene expression) and is characterized by a reduced proliferative capacity and more restricted developmental potential than its parent. (jci.org)
  • In 2004, the first commercially cloned cat, Little Nicky, was created by Genetic Savings & Clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method creates a transgenic mouse and is used to insert new genetic information into the mouse genome or to over-express endogenous genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method is used to manipulate a single gene, in most cases "knocking out" the target gene, although more subtle genetic manipulation can occur (e.g. only changing single nucleotides). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are a useful model for genetic manipulation and research, as their tissues and organs are similar to that of a human and they carry virtually all the same genes that operate in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most techniques for genetic manipulation, including random mutagenesis with a gene trap (retroviral-based and non-retroviral-based), gene knock-outs/knock-ins, and conditional mutations, depend upon the culture and manipulation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ISH technique labels specific nucleic acid sequences on a gene that can help detect genetic abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is already a "microchip that can test a remarkable 1,500 genetic traits at once, including heart disease, seasonal affective disorder, obesity, athletic ability, hair and Eye color, height, susceptibility to alcohol and nicotine addictions, lactose intolerance and one of several genes linked to intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the recombination activity can be targeted to a selected organ, or a low level of recombination activity can be used to consistently alter the DNA of only a subset of cells, Flp-FRT can be used to construct genetic mosaics in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pattern formation in the morphogenesis of an animal is regulated by genetic induction factors that put cells to work after damage has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution, many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • This technique provides for the transfer of vectors and expression of recombinant genes in vivo and allows the introduction of proteins of therapeutic or diagnostic value for the treatment of disease. (google.com)
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strictly speaking, recombinant DNA refers to DNA molecules, while molecular cloning refers to the experimental methods used to assemble them. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Since the first isolation of usable stem cells, tremendous scientific interest has flourished over the potential of stem cell research to improve our understanding of human development and disease and potentially for cell-based therapies to cure a wide range of diseases. (spusa.org)
  • However, to be used for therapies, embryonic stem cells must be differentiated into specialized cells because undifferentiated stem cells are known to cause tumors. (spusa.org)
  • iii] Likely the most publicly hailed potential of embryonic stem cells is in cell-based therapies. (spusa.org)
  • In another scenario, genetically-customized stem cell lines would be generated for cell-based therapies to transplant to the patient. (bootstrike.com)
  • In the near future, as the stem cell field progresses closer to the clinic, additional ethical issues are likely to arise concerning the clinical translation of basic stem cell knowledge into reasonably safe, effective, and accessible patient therapies. (jci.org)
  • Many in the international scientific community believe that the promise of stem cell-based studies or therapies will be realized only if we can derive new human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. (jci.org)
  • Stem cell--based therapies propose to treat human medical conditions by replacing cells that have been lost through disease or injury. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research focuses on differentiating ES into a variety of cell types for eventual use as cell replacement therapies (CRTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • The use of differentiated cells from human pluripotent cell lines would allow scientists to test new medications on a wider range of cell types. (spusa.org)
  • According to most stem cell scientists, patient advocacy groups, and even top-ranking NIH officials involved in stem cell research funding, federally sponsored stem cell research using Bush's stem cell lines is woefully inadequate to advance American stem cell science. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • Since scientists have been able to map out most of the gene locations in DNA, they have discovered ways to manipulate the genes. (essaypride.com)
  • Scientists are discovering ways to manipulate the genes of crops in order to create plants that can resist things such as herbicides, insects, and pesticides on their own. (essaypride.com)
  • In 2001, scientists at Texas A&M University created the first cloned cat, CC (CopyCat). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cloned male buffalo calf Shresth was born in 2010 at the NDRI In May 2010, Got became the first cloned Spanish Fighting Bull, cloned by Spanish scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Harvard Stem Cell Institute, co-directed by Melton, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, and David Scadden, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of the Center of Regenerative Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, is a unique collaborative effort that includes 99 principal investigators and hundreds of additional scientists in laboratories at Harvard University and at many of Harvard's affiliated hospitals. (scienceblog.com)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Then surely the next question becomes obvious: If scientists have successfully cloned sheep, mice, cattle, goats, monkeys, and pigs (all of which are mammals), can they then clone humans-who likewise are mammals? (apologeticspress.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • Moreover, the fact that the modified cells are selected prior to NT means that all the animals born are transgenic (as compared to 5~1O% by conventional transgenesis) and their gender is entirely predictable. (expertsmind.com)
  • However, phenotypic discrepancies between knock-in mice and transgenic mutant ras overexpression prompted us to evaluate the consequences of targeted knock-in of an oncogenic K- ras mutation in the nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A and hTERT -immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to a variety of conventional transgenic approaches, several lines of knock-in mice carrying mutant K- ras oncogenes at the endogenous locus have been generated recently ( 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Creating the technology to produce transgenic insects has been a goal of insect molecular geneticists for years because of the great need to have effective tools to find, isolate and analyze insect genes and to genetically modify insects for the purposes of insect control. (biologists.org)
  • Currently, there are at least four gene-vector systems derived from Class II transposable elements that can be employed to generate transgenic nondrosophilid insects [ Hermes, Mos1 ( mariner ), Minos and piggyBac ]. (biologists.org)
  • Because they contain foreign DNA fragments, these are transgenic or genetically modified microorganisms (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • The utility of the currently available systems will be determined by a number of factors including the behavior of the gene vectors during the initial integration event and their behavior after chromosomal integration. (biologists.org)
  • Post-integration behavior will determine whether the transposable elements being employed currently as primary gene vectors will be useful as gene-tagging and enhancer-trapping agents. (biologists.org)
  • Minos also functions in mosquitoes and, like the other gene vectors, appears to remobilize inefficiently following integration. (biologists.org)
  • The post-integration behavior of insect gene vectors is particularly relevant to a number of future applications of this technology. (biologists.org)
  • That is, these plasmids could serve as cloning vectors to carry genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • This would produce a cloned, one-cell embryo that would mature for several days in the laboratory and then be destroyed to obtain stem cells genetically matched to the patient. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • The institute is dedicated to advancing all forms of stem cell science from laboratory bench to patient bedside as quickly as possible. (scienceblog.com)
  • While mice have proven to be a useful rodent model and techniques have been developed for routine disruption of their genes, in many circumstances rats are considered a superior laboratory animal for studying and modeling human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • They argue that the Bush policy granted federal funds for the very first time for human embryonic stem cell research, as long as the lines were derived before August 9, 2001. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • mammalian
  • The oncogenic function of mutant ras in mammalian cells has been extensively investigated using multiple human and animal models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human eggs, as it turns out, are considerably more fragile than eggs of other mammalian species, and they do not survive the procedures that were successfully used to clone animals. (orthodoxytoday.org)
  • Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The February 27, 1997 issue of Nature reported it in a mundanely titled article, "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Immortalized cell lines are widely used as a simple model for more complex biological systems, for example for the analysis of the biochemistry and cell biology of mammalian (including human) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in May and June 1997, I authored a series on "Cloning-Scientific and Biblical Ramifications. (apologeticspress.org)
  • reprogram
  • As discussed on this blog , yesterday, Yamanaka's group built on their earlier research published in 2006 and 2007, using mouse fibroblasts to prove that four genes, Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, could reprogram those cells to a state that resembled embryonic stem cells in all tests that they tried. (lifeethics.org)
  • successfully
  • Two of these cloned cattle successfully mated, each producing a healthy calf. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • The development of efficient germ-line transformation technologies for mosquitoes has increased the ability of entomologists to find, isolate and analyze genes. (biologists.org)
  • Further, cell lines can change genetically over multiple passages, leading to phenotypic differences among isolates and potentially different experimental results depending on when and with what strain isolate an experiment is conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ line
  • There are generally three methods used in the manipulation of human genes and they are cloning, somatic cell manipulation, and human germ line manipulation. (essaypride.com)
  • Not only is there the possibility of cloning animals for production of good, healthy livestock, there is also the possibility of manipulating genes in order to create offspring with good characteristics (germ line manipulation). (essaypride.com)
  • however, the element does not remobilize in the germ line. (biologists.org)
  • These systems are proving useful but their behavior can be unpredictable in the sense that, short of directly testing its mobility in the germ line, there are no good indicators of the potential effectiveness of a specific element in a species. (biologists.org)
  • diseases
  • If successful, it will mark a major step forward in the effort to use stem cells to treat chronic diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • Genetically modified mice are commonly used for research or as animal models of human diseases, and are also used for research on genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout rats can mimic human diseases and are important tools for studying gene function (functional genomics) and for drug discovery and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although published knockouts exist for approximately 60% of mouse genes, a large majority of common human diseases do not have a knockout mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the completion of the rat genome sequence provides very key information, how these diseases relate to gene function requires an efficient method to create knockout rat models in which specific genomic sequences are manipulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic evolution is important in the process of aging as well as the development of some diseases, including cancer. (wikipedia.org)