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  • various
  • By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • blastocyst
  • The scientist can then either remove the stem cells from this blastocyst, or place it into a uterus where it has the potential to develop into a fetus. (eurekalert.org)
  • But this entire process is almost never perfect, and nearly all cells in a cloned blastocyst retain some memory of their original source. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated that a small number of stem cells in the blastocyst appear to be spared this faulty reprogramming. (eurekalert.org)
  • When stem cells from a cloned blastocyst are removed and placed into a dish, most die. (eurekalert.org)
  • The egg 'reprograms' the DNA in the donor cell to an embryonic state and divides until it has reached the early, blastocyst stage. (omicsonline.org)
  • The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • The authors conclude that although in this early phase of research no direct evidence can be provided about the practical use of transgenic pigs produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer as organ donors or disease models, the future chances even in medium term are good, and at least proportional with the efforts and sums that are invested into this research area worldwide. (publish.csiro.au)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Ltd. is live, dead & ancestral human somatic cell preservation (To Clone Human in Future) and innovative health care product company, driven by highly experienced scientists having registered office in India. (endorphins-healthcare.com)
  • Scientists generally agree that all cloned animals are biologically flawed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Analyzing the complete gene-expression profiles of both cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells in mice, scientists at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research now have concluded that the two are, in fact, indistinguishable. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is one reason why scientists generally believe that attempting to clone a human being is morally reprehensible. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although these animals generated entirely from cloned stem cells appear to be fine, many scientists don't accept this result as definitive. (eurekalert.org)
  • genes
  • These cells express the genes appropriate for mammary gland function, not the genes which are important for embryonic development. (hstalks.com)
  • Only few clones manage to activate these genes, and those which do manage to activate these genes are often not normal. (hstalks.com)
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • With a series of microarray chips, Brambrink measured which genes were active and which were silent in both kinds of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • A potential use of genetically-customized stem cells would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to the particular disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • It remained for a privately funded collaboration from biotechnology company Geron to isolate the genes for the RNA and protein component of human telomerase in order to establish the role of telomere shortening in cellular aging and telomerase reactivation in cell immortalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Conversely, UCK2 has been detected mostly in cancerous cells and healthy placental tissue.The selective expression in target tissues has resulted in the identification of UCK2 as a target in anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • After a certain number of cell divisions, the ball of cells was implanted into a pseudo-pregnant sheep. (bioedonline.org)
  • Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly's death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attempt to clone a banteng bull was more successful, as were the attempts to clone mouflon (a form of wild sheep), both resulting in viable offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, Ritchie and Campbell in collaboration with PPL (Pharmaceutical Proteins Limited) created another sheep named "Polly", created from genetically altered skin cells containing a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult cell
  • This demonstrated for the first time that the DNA in a somatic cell (specifically, a breast cell) still contained all the information needed to direct the formation of an entire organism, and that this information could be made accessible again in the adult cell. (bioedonline.org)
  • primates
  • This crucial step allowed the researchers to overcome the main obstacle that had prevented the successful cloning of primates until now. (wikipedia.org)
  • The birth of the two cloned primates also raised concerns from bioethicists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theriogenology
  • Gábor Vajta publications indexed by Google Scholar "Website of Reproductive Biomedicine Online (journal)" "Website of Cryobiology (journal)" "Website of Reproduction, Nutrition, Development (journal)" "Website of Theriogenology (journal)" "Website of Animal Reproduction Science (journal)" "Website of Cellular Reprogramming (journal)" "Cell Nuclear Transfer" patent no. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Our overriding goal is to safely preserve the live humans, critically ill humans, loved ones who passed away & ancestral somatic cells to produce human clone through reproductive cloning technology in near future when reproductive human cloning become absolutely safe through advancement of technology and ethics and government law permits. (endorphins-healthcare.com)
  • Methods to reprogram normal body cells into pluripotent stem cells were developed in humans in 2007. (bootstrike.com)
  • Researchers
  • Researchers have tried to test the integrity of these surviving stem cells by transplanting them into fertilized blastocysts and then observing the overall health of the resulting animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Artificial
  • She is the first "cloned" primate by artificial twinning, and was created by a team led by Professor Gerald Schatten of the Oregon National Primate Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Handmade
  • During the past 25 years he has developed several patents relating to embryology, most notably the method of Handmade Cloning (HMC), the Submarine Incubation System (SIS), the Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification and the Well of the Well (WOW) system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In addition, we have paved the way to our further understanding of the Xist RNA machinery by deriving various cell lines from the mice we established by knocking out a protein involved in the regulation of Xist RNA deposition to the inactive X. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1999
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (c-met-related tyrosine kinase), encoded by the MST1R gene, is a cell-surface receptor that binds macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). (clontech.com)
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • Potential uses of human iPSCs include modeling pathogenesis of human genetic diseases, autologous cell therapy after gene correction, and personalized drug screening by providing a source of patient-specific and symptom relevant cells. (jove.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleolar antigen expressed in proliferating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have near identical DNA, the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that cells are capable of regulating gene expression at several stages: mRNA transcription, processing and transportation as well as in protein translation, post-translational processing and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the finding that DNA methylation and histone modifications are stable, heritable, and also reversible processes that influence gene expression without altering DNA primary structure, a mechanism for the observed variability in cell gene expression was provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an enzyme-based treatment used in biotechnology to cut DNA into smaller strands in order to study fragment length differences among individuals or for gene cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene segments result in the generation of antibody repertoire during development and maturation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the antibody repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the lymphoid cell, a partial rearrangement of the heavy-chain gene occurs which is followed by complete rearrangement of heavy-chain gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final rearrangement of the light chain gene generates immature B cell and mIgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins.The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the assortment of these gene segments occurs at B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypermutation
  • Biologically, as a result of junctional recombination, P/N nucleotide editing and somatic hypermutation (for BCR/antibodies) [ 14 ], the protein sequence space of CDR3s is immense and renders the finding of significant overlap between repertoires highly unlikely. (beds.ac.uk)
  • proliferation
  • MST1R/RON signaling activates the wound healing response by promoting epithelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival at the wound site. (clontech.com)
  • From these experiments, we also show that proliferation and cell identity play a role in the number of iPSCs per input cell number. (jove.com)
  • However, they block the proliferation of T helper cells type two. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p120 protein displays a dramatic increase in expression at the G1/S transition suggesting that p120 regulates the cell cycle and nucleolar activity that is required for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm cells
  • The degree of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells can predict outcomes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its expansion intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. (clontech.com)
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, RNA, and/or proteins are key effectors in these processes and function by positively or negatively regulating specific protein level and function in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells via a G-protein coupled receptor (which inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus effectively antagonising the stimulatory effect of histamine) to reduce acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature B cell formed as RNA processing changes leaves the bone marrow and is stimulated by the antigen then differentiated into IgM -secreted plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional central dogma of biology states that the DNA of a cell is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to proteins, which perform cellular processes and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, successful reprogramming was demonstrated from a single vial of blood or less using cells expressing the early lineage marker CD34 as well as from unpurified peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (jove.com)
  • A common example of a stem cell is the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells of the blood lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • The methodology to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) affords the opportunity to generate cells specific to the individual providing the host tissue. (jove.com)
  • Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (also known as STAP) was a proposed method of generating pluripotent stem cells by subjecting ordinary cells to certain types of stress, such as the application of a bacterial toxin, submersion in a weak acid, or physical trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • On average only 25% of cells survived the acid treatment, but over 50% of those that survived converted to Oct4-GFP+CD45− pluripotent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this message posted to the WIRED Future List, Raymond Kurzweil asserts that cloning-replicating animals, organs, and cells-has profound implications for health and well-being of both humans and animals, including a possible solution for world hunger. (kurzweilai.net)
  • STAP cells injected into mouse embryos grew into a variety of tissues and organs found throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • A paradox exists, however, in that cells exhibit diverse responses to varying stimuli and that cells sharing identical sets of DNA such as in multicellular organisms can have a variety of distinct functions and phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • fully differentiated
  • A cell may stay in this state for several days, and then either die or irrevocably differentiate into a mature, fully differentiated plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In baboon skeletal muscle, which consists of fully differentiated post-mitotic cells, less than 3% of myonuclei contain damaged telomeres and this percentage does not increase with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The field is analogous to genomics and proteomics, which are the study of the genome and proteome of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • cytokines
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferative
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • lymphocytes
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Here, we introduce a bioinformatics repertoire-profiling framework that possesses the advantage of capturing the diversity and distribution of entire immune repertoires, as opposed to singular public clones. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • She went on as directed, to test the effects of various stimuli on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms governing phenotypic plasticity, or the capacity of a cell to change its state in response to stimuli, have long been the subject of research (Phenotypic plasticity 1). (wikipedia.org)