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  • epigenetic
  • Epigenetic control of gene expression lasts through multiple cell divisions without alterations in primary DNA sequence and can occur via mechanisms that include histone modification and DNA methylation. (stanford.edu)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms are flexible genomic factors that not only can change genome function under exogenous influence, but also can provide a molecular substrate that allows for the stable propagation of gene expression states from one generation of cells to the next. (ahajournals.org)
  • Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues in mammalian cells is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting and development (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • 2008. Effect of epigenetic modifications of donor somatic cells on the subsequent chromatin remodeling of cloned bovine embryos. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. (chenglilab.org)
  • 5 Moreover, methylation of cytosines at CpG islands has been recently recognised as an important epigenetic alteration, which may play a decisive role in the control of gene expression, namely during mammalian development. (bmj.com)
  • The characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the identification of oncogene and tumor suppressor genes for CSCs, and the epigenetic study of CSCs and their microenvironments are important topics. (springer.com)
  • This review summarizes the application of cell reprogramming technologies to cancer modeling and treatment and discusses possible obstacles, such as genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, as well as the strategies that can be used to overcome these obstacles to cancer research. (springer.com)
  • vitro
  • I have also received extensive training in the areas of gamete physiology, manipulation, cell culture and in-vitro gamete manipulation. (zavos.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and adipose tissue stem cells (ASC) of humans and rhesus macaques were evaluated for their cell cycle properties during protracted culture in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary mammalian somatic cells can replicate in vitro an estimated 50 cumulative population doublings, after which the cultures stop dividing ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although it has been shown that MSCs and other stem cell populations continuously grow in vitro for 10 to 20 passages, it seems that MSCs, similar to all other primary cells, are subject to the Hayflick limit ( 4 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human adipose tissue stem cells (hASCs) undergo immortalization and spontaneous transformation after protracted periods of expansion in vitro ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The latter encompass human skin regenerated on immune deficient mice as well as organotypic constructs with epithelial and stromal cells embedded within architecturally faithful mesenchyma in vitro. (stanford.edu)
  • Our current observations also indicate that follicular renewal exists in rat ovaries, and human oocytes can differentiate from ovarian surface epithelium in fetal ovaries in vivo and from adult ovaries in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The present invention relates to a medium used when mammalian somatic cells are cultured in vitro, and an additive to constitute the medium. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that adult fibroblasts showed increased cell migration in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation, whereas fetal fibroblasts were unresponsive. (jove.com)
  • Recently, a study has suggested that colorectal cancer tissue-derived Foxp3 + IL17 + cells have the capacity to induce cancer-initiating cells in vitro ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • testis
  • differentiated somatic cells in the adult mammalian testis but its rules isn't well realized. (extremebiology.net)
  • The ovary and testis offer excellent versions for learning adult stem Resveratrol cell behavior (Fuller and Spradling 2007 Matunis et al. (extremebiology.net)
  • 2012 In the testis Jak-STAT signaling keeps two types of stem cells: sperm-producing germline stem cells (GSCs) and assisting somatic stem cells known as cyst stem cells (CySCs). (extremebiology.net)
  • Both these cell types put on a single specific niche market developed by quiescent somatic hub cells in the testis apex and separate asymmetrically to create differentiating progeny (spermatogonia and cyst cells respectively) that are displaced through the specific niche market (Matunis et al. (extremebiology.net)
  • Outcomes Reduced amount of Chinmo causes the looks of cells resembling ovarian follicle cells in the adult market then through the entire testis While testing for testis phenotypes we determined a spontaneous mutation causing a striking transformation of the adult testis. (extremebiology.net)
  • The function of piRNAs expressed in the adult testis is not well established. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We conducted a detailed characterization of piRNAs aligning at or near the 3' UTRs of protein-coding genes in a deep dataset of small RNAs from adult mouse testis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These results identify and support a novel reproductive tissue-specific role for Akap9 in the coordinated regulation of Sertoli cells in the testis. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2) is a germ cell-specific protein whose mRNA is translationally regulated in the mammalian testis. (nih.gov)
  • Using RNA affinity chromatography with the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Pgk2 mRNA and adult testis extracts, several associated proteins including a novel isoform of the AU-rich element RNA-binding protein and KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) were identified. (nih.gov)
  • t-KSRP binds directly to a 93-nt sequence (designated the F1 region) of the 3'-UTR of the Pgk2 mRNA and destabilizes Pgk2 mRNA constructs in testis extracts and in transfected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Decay assays were performed as in (A) with prepuberal (extracts from testes of 17-day-old mice) or adult extracts except that incubation temperature was set at 25°C. (C) Depletion of KSRP from testis extracts leads to the stabilization of F1 RNA. (nih.gov)
  • induce
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that induce the activation of the stellate cells will certainly contribute to the development of new anti-fibrotics. (ac.be)
  • quiescent
  • In addition to contributing to heterochromatin formation and propagation, HP1 and SUV39H are also found complexed with retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F6 proteins, both of which function to repress euchromatic gene transcription in quiescent cells (10,11). (cellsignal.com)
  • These liver progenitor cells are quiescent in the healthy liver and become activated in certain liver diseases in which the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes and/or cholangiocytes is impaired. (ac.be)
  • oocytes
  • The origin of oocytes and primary follicles in ovaries of adult mammalian females has been a matter of dispute for over 100 yr. (springer.com)
  • The prevailing belief that all oocytes in adult mammalian females must persist from the fetal period of life seems to be a uniquely retrogressive reproductive mechanism requiring humans to preserve their gametes from the fetal period for several decades. (springer.com)
  • gene expression
  • Gene expression changes were much less evident within the same cell type as aging occurred (0.7% in hMSCs and 0.9% in rMSC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, sensory denervation of skin results in alterations in skin anatomy, including thinning of the epidermis, decreases in epidermal proliferation, and changes in the gene expression of Langerhans cells (Huang et al. (google.com)
  • Of particular interest were changes that occurred to DNA during an animal's development , whereby patterns in gene expression were altered as cells became increasingly specialized in function. (britannica.com)
  • To examine such differences between individual stem cells, we determined the global gene expression profile of 12 single stem cells using microarrays. (jove.com)
  • germ cells
  • We also find that germ cells in 7-9 day old mutant testes are arrested as early male germ cells (spermatogonia) based on their morphology Resveratrol branching fusomes (de Cuevas et. (extremebiology.net)
  • Among the numerous types of small RNAs that have been investigated in recent years, piRNAs have been of interest primarily because they seem to be essential for maintenance of germ cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This indicates that if somatic cells are precursors of germ cells, then somatic mutations can be passed on to progeny. (springer.com)
  • We have earlier shown that in adult human females, mesenchymal cells in the ovarian tunica albuginea undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition into ovarian surface epithelium cells, which differentiate sequentially into primitive granulosa and germ cells. (springer.com)
  • Connexin43 (Cx43) and zona occludens-1 are improperly localized in Akap9 mutant testes, and Cx43 fails to compartmentalize germ cells near the BTB. (nih.gov)
  • H&E staining of wild-type stage XII seminiferous tubules (A and C) reveals differentiating germ cells, including metaphase spermatocytes (open arrowhead) and elongated spermatids (closed arrowhead). (nih.gov)
  • Akap9 R12/R12 germ cells in stage XII tubules (D) are not advanced beyond zygonema (Zyg). (nih.gov)
  • A cytoplasmic variant of the KH-type splicing regulatory protein serves as a decay-promoting factor for phosphoglycerate kinase 2 mRNA in murine male germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the approximately 75-kDa KSRP, a approximately 52-kD KSRP, t-KSRP, is present in the cytoplasm of a subpopulation of germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that this testicular variant of the multifunctional nucleic acid-binding protein, KSRP, serves as a decay-promoting factor for Pgk2 mRNA in male germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • mammals
  • The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly's birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology. (britannica.com)
  • For decades, scientists had tried and failed to clone mammals from existing adults. (britannica.com)
  • replicate
  • Bovine Papilloma Virus Plasmids Replicate Randomly in Mouse Fibroblasts throughout S Phase of the Cell Cycle," Cell 50:59-68 (1987). (patentgenius.com)
  • Isolation of Human Sequences that Replicate Autonomously in Human Cells," Molec. (patentgenius.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus-based vectors that replicate in rodent cells," Gene 136:137-143 (1993). (patentgenius.com)
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • methylation
  • DNA methylation is mitotically stable and can be transmitted through cell division and, in some loci identified in animal experiments, transgenerationally. (ahajournals.org)
  • Just a few years later, DNA methylation was first described in bacterial genomes ( Figure 2 ), but only in 1975, did 2 groups independently hypothesize that 5-methylcytosines were duplicated through cell division and regulated mRNA expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • DNMT1 is constitutively expressed in proliferating cells and functions as a maintenance methyltransferase, transferring proper methylation patterns to newly synthesized DNA during replication. (cellsignal.com)
  • Reprogramming
  • Here we demonstrate the cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation of a key reprogramming transcription factor, Ascl1, on multiple serine-proline sites. (biologists.org)
  • These findings suggest that the process of reprogramming could lead to an elevated mutational load in hiPS cells. (chenglilab.org)
  • these most likely arose in shared common progenitor cells prior to reprogramming. (chenglilab.org)
  • Biology
  • Without the ability to grow cells in the lab, the fast progress in disciplines like cell biology, immunology, or cancer research would be unthinkable. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The investigation of the hitherto unappreciated layer of gene regulation mediated by miRNAs has also provided new insights into our understanding of stem cell biology and pointed to new directions for therapeutic applications of stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Healing of wounds in skin and other epithelia involves a complex set of interactions between numerous components, including epithelial cells, peripheral nerves, and immune cells, as well as soluble and matrix molecules contributed by the various cell types (reviewed in Hom et al. (google.com)
  • In vivo , epithelial cells line the body structures. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Although the pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear, a number of studies have suggested the involvement of abnormal apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, resulting from increased production of cytokines, such as TNF, ILs, and IFNs ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1962
  • With cells from Rana pipiens (Briggs and King, 1960), Xenopus leavis (Gurdon, 1962), and Drosophila melanogaster (Okada et al. (springer.com)
  • fibroblasts
  • For example, rat hepatoma cells that secreted albumin were fused to mouse fibroblasts that did not. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that CCT-eta (but not CCT-beta) is underexpressed in fetal fibroblasts compared to adult fibroblasts. (jove.com)
  • In each of these instances, the effect of downregulating CCT-eta was to modulate the behavior of adult fibroblasts so as to more closely approximate the characteristics of fetal fibroblasts. (jove.com)
  • Fetal fibroblasts were found to constitutively express less alpha-SMA than adult cells. (jove.com)
  • mice
  • Mice with increased adult neurogenesis are better specifically at discriminating highly similar odorants. (embopress.org)
  • Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • a subset of these somatic 3'UTR small RNA clusters are absent in mice lacking MIWI2, indicating a role for MIWI2 in the metabolism of somatic small RNAs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • AKAP9 is essential for spermatogenesis and sertoli cell maturation in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Cirp −/− mice given dextran sodium sulfate exhibited decreased susceptibility to colonic inflammation through decreased expression of TNFα, IL23, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL in colonic lamina propria cells compared with similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B) F1 RNAs are degraded more rapidly in extracts from 17-day-old mice than from adults. (nih.gov)
  • mammary
  • Dolly was cloned from a mammary gland cell taken from an adult Finn Dorset ewe. (britannica.com)
  • The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland , and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Several years ago we found that neurons have specific chromatin remodeling mechanisms not present in any other cell type that are produced by combinatorial assembly of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. (stanford.edu)
  • We investigate the mechanisms of contraction of hepatic stellate cells, key cells in the regulation of intrahepatic vascular resistance. (ac.be)
  • tissue
  • Recent studies have revealed that aging has been negatively correlated with the number and functional activities of tissue stem cells. (biologists.org)
  • Primary cells are taken directly from living tissue. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • For cultivation, the original tissue fragment is dissociated enzymatically, chemically, or mechanically into single cells which can be seeded on culture flasks. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • In recent years, stem cell research in dentistry has grown rapidly with the potential application for oral and maxillofacial tissue regeneration. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this review is to describe new findings in the field of dental stem cell research and their potential applications in tissue regeneration and therapy of inflammation-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • However, because this same alteration is also present in normal and hyperplastic tissue, it does not distinguish normal from neoplastic prostate cells, thus precluding its use as a prostate cancer marker. (bmj.com)
  • 3 These islands normally remain unmethylated in the germ line and in normal adult tissue, 4 and rarely become methylated in somatic cells. (bmj.com)
  • chromatin
  • Recently we have developed an effective way of both assaying and modifying chromatin regulation in living cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Several features make the chromatin environment of neurons likely to be different than any other cell type. (stanford.edu)
  • lineage
  • IL23 has been shown to promote the expansion of a distinct lineage of T H 17 cells that are characterized by production of a number of specific cytokines not produced by T H 1 or T H 2 cells, including IL17A, IL17F, IL21, and IL22 ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)