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  • dimethylformamide
  • The four first generations of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine have been studied in dimethylformamide (aprotic solvent) and in 0.2 M NaCl aqueous solutions by isothermal translation diffusion, 1 H NMR and viscometry methods. (mdpi.com)
  • In aprotic solvent, the dendrigraft poly-L-lysine dimensions are about two times lower than in aqueous media ( i.e. , the hydrodynamic volume is contracted by a factor 8 in dimethylformamide), revealing the softness of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine compared to classical trifunctional dendrimers. (mdpi.com)
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Special boiling point (SBP) solvents are versatile fast to medium evaporating aliphatic hydrocarbon fluids with very low impurities and aromatics content and narrow boiling ranges. (shell.com)
  • Pentane is a high purity aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent primarily used as propellants in aerosols, as blowing agents in foams and as reaction media in polymerisation processes. (shell.com)
  • organic solvent
  • Dissolver: an organic solvent that is added to an adhesive, coating, or ink in order to melt or to liquefy solid particles. (ca.gov)
  • Organic Solvent: includes diluents and thinners which contain VOCs, is liquid at standard conditions and which is used as a dissolver, viscosity reducer, or cleaning material, except that such material exhibiting a boiling point higher than 220oF at 0.5 millimeter mercury absolute pressure or having an equivalent vapor pressure shall not be considered to be an organic solvent unless exposed to temperatures exceeding 220oF. (ca.gov)
  • Whenever any organic solvent or any constituent of an organic solvent may be classified from its chemical structure into more than one (1) of the above groups of organic compounds, it shall be considered as a member of the most reactive chemical group, that is, that group having the least allowable percentage of the total volume of solvents. (ca.gov)
  • Thinner or Viscosity Reducer: an organic solvent which is added to an adhesive, coating, or ink to make it more fluid. (ca.gov)
  • 4.5.1 The volatile content of material consists only of water and organic solvents, and 4.5.2 The organic solvents content comprises not more than 20 percent by volume of the total volatile content, and 4.5.3 The volatile content is not photochemically reactive, and 4.5.4 The organic solvent does not come into contact with flame. (ca.gov)
  • It is usually used as a solution in an organic solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionic
  • They are classified as types of ionic solvents with special properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four types of eutectic solvents: Type I Eutectics therefore also include the wide range of chlorometallate ionic liquids widely studied in the 1980s, such as the ever-popular imidazolium chloroaluminates which are based on mixtures of AlCl3 + 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • toluene
  • The aromatic solvents available from Shell chemicals companies include pure aromatics like toluene and xylene (isomer mix) as well as a range of heavier C9 and C10 aromatic solvents sold under the ShellSol* name. (shell.com)
  • solutes
  • Solvent drag, also known as bulk transport, refers to solutes in the ultrafiltrate that are transported back from the renal tubule by the flow of water rather than specifically by ion pumps or other membrane transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • solubility
  • Incorporating microwave heating with deep eutectic solvent can efficiently increase the solubility power of DES and reduce the time required for complete dissolution of biological samples at atmospheric pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • polarity
  • Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent on UV-absorption maxima of a salt, usually pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donor number and donor acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, these solvents have high dielectric constants and high polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These solvents generally have intermediate dielectric constants and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no one measure of solvent polarity and so classification of solvents based on polarity can be carried out using different scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, solvents of low polarity that do not readily form H bonds allow cis enolic stabilization by intramolecular H bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermolecular
  • The intramolecular H bond formed in the cis enol form is more pronounced when there is no competition for intermolecular H bonding with the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMSO
  • Other solvents meeting IUPAC's criteria include DMF, HMPA, and DMSO. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the table above, it can be seen that water is the most polar-solvent, followed by DMSO, and then acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the following acid dissociation equilibrium: HA ⇌ A− + H+, Water, being the most polar-solvent listed above, stabilizes the ionized species to a greater extent than does DMSO or Acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the hydroxide ion is often a much stronger base in nonaqueous solvents (e.g. liquid ammonia, DMSO) than in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidities
  • Few quantitative studies on acidities in nonaqueous solvents have been carried out, although some qualitative data are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally
  • Implicit models are generally computationally efficient and can provide a reasonable description of the solvent behaviour, but fail to account for the local fluctuations in solvent density around a solute molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, for implicit solvents, a calculation proceeds by encapsulating a solute in a tiled cavity (See the figure below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, hydrophobic amino acids will be buried inside the protein and thus shielded from the solvent, while hydrophilic amino acids will be close to the surface and thus exposed to the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • showed that water can be present as part of the solvent, being strongly retained in the liquid and which cannot be evaporated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density fluctuation behaviour is due to solvent ordering around a solute and is particularly prevalent when one is considering water as the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, the solvent exposure of an amino acid in a protein measures to what extent the amino acid is accessible to the solvent (usually water) surrounding the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another case, the solvation of the polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in DES is distinct from water, whereby the DES appear to be a better solvent for the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, the limiting base in a given solvent is the solvate ion, such as OH− (hydroxide) ion, in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • Effective: This solvent will remove all residue and fouling in your firearms as well as from different materials as well such as copper, brass and carbon. (mountsplus.com)
  • Exposure
  • Exposure to large doses of solvents may slow down reaction- time and affect rational judgement. (ilo.org)
  • Solvent exposure can be numerically described by several measures, the most popular measures being accessible surface area and relative accessible surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamelryck T. (2005) An amino acid has two sides: A new 2D measure provides a different view of solvent exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • Shell Chemicals are leading global suppliers of solvents, with strategically located plants offering continuous long term supply. (shell.com)
  • Shell Chemicals have in-depth knowledge of solvents products, their applications, and health, safety and environment issues. (shell.com)
  • Cleaning firearms has always been a tricky process as standard solvents contain petroleum and other toxic chemicals that may do harm when exposed to over a long period of time. (mountsplus.com)
  • Macron Fine Chemicals™ UltimAR solvents offer purity, consistency and excellent performance in HPLC applications along with the economy of a "universal" solvent suitable for multiple applications. (jtbaker.com)
  • Some carts for transporting containers of chemicals come equipped with a built in solvent cabinet). (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • A human solvent would be sulfuric acid. (usingenglish.com)
  • The ionization equilibrium of an acid or a base is affected by a solvent change. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solvent cabinet should be positioned separately from acid cabinet or base cabinet (used for storing acids and caustic bases respectively, as solvents are not compatible with these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • An acid which has more of a tendency to donate a hydrogen ion than the limiting acid will be a strong acid in the solvent considered, and will exist mostly or entirely in its dissociated form. (wikipedia.org)
  • There exists a large corpus of data concerning acid strengths in aqueous solution (pKa values), and it is tempting to transfer this to other solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPLC
  • UltimAR solvents meet or exceed ACS specifications for HPLC and UV spectrophotometry applications, and give you the mobile phase purity you need for success in general lab use as well. (jtbaker.com)
  • Perform liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) applications with this 99.5%-pure DMF solvent (MW 73.09, CAS 68-12-2) with low UV-absorptivity. (fishersci.com)
  • interactions
  • For a poor solvent, polymer-polymer self-interactions are preferred, and the polymer coils will contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • The creation of the cavity will be entropically and enthalpically unfavorable as the ordered structure of the solvent decreases and there are fewer solvent-solvent interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stabilization of the reactant or product can occur through any of the different non-covalent interactions with the solvent such as H-bonding, dipole-dipole interactions, van der waals interactions etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • Breakthrough is a revolutionary, state of the art solvent that actually has used new technology to create a substance that is now quicker to use and safer than ever before. (mountsplus.com)
  • reaction
  • see also: Solvents - solvent classification) Different solvents can affect the equilibrium constant of a reaction by differential stabilization of the reactant or product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, the reaction rates are influenced by differential solvation of the starting material and transition state by the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, the health risks of perc as a dry cleaning solvent has spurred interest in alternative solvents to replace its use. (sgs.com)
  • However, the work piece may also be sprayed or have solvent directly whipped on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, such differential solvation requires rapid reorientational relaxation of the solvent (from the transition state orientation back to the ground-state orientation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any superfluid can theoretically act as a quantum solvent, however in practice the only viable superfluid medium that can currently be used is helium-4, and it has been successfully accomplished in controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)