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  • steam
  • This heat can be used to study the properties of materials at high temperatures, or it can be used to operate a boiler, which in turn generates steam for a steam-turbine-electric-generator power plant. (britannica.com)
  • For producing steam, the movable mirrors are so arranged as to concentrate large amounts of solar radiation upon blackened pipes through which water is circulated and thereby heated. (britannica.com)
  • sunlight
  • The Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, and sunlight is by far the largest source of energy received by the Earth , but its intensity at the Earth's surface is actually quite low . (britannica.com)
  • The arrays of carefully aligned mirrors or lenses used in these so-called solar furnaces can focus enough sunlight to heat a target to temperatures of 2,000 °C (3,600 °F) or more. (britannica.com)
  • efficiency
  • Flat-plate collectors typically heat carrier fluids to temperatures ranging from 66 to 93 °C (150 to 200 °F). The efficiency of such collectors (i.e., the proportion of the energy received that they convert into usable energy) ranges from 20 to 80 percent, depending on the design of the collector. (britannica.com)
  • The energy efficiency of most present-day photovoltaic cells is only about 15 to 20 percent, and since the intensity of solar radiation is low to begin with, huge and costly assemblies of such cells are required to produce even moderate amounts of power. (britannica.com)
  • collector
  • Even in sunny parts of the world's temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 40 square metres (430 square feet) to gather enough energy to serve the energy needs of one person. (britannica.com)