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  • radiation
  • Around 24% of solar radiation of a long wavelength is not absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation ( insolation ) at the upper atmosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator have a greater amount of solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar irradiance (SI) is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), or beam radiation , is measured at the surface of the Earth at a given location with a surface element perpendicular to the Sun. It excludes diffuse solar radiation (radiation that is scattered or reflected by atmospheric components). (wikipedia.org)
  • For producing steam, the movable mirrors are so arranged as to concentrate large amounts of solar radiation upon blackened pipes through which water is circulated and thereby heated. (britannica.com)
  • The energy efficiency of most present-day photovoltaic cells is only about 15 to 20 percent, and since the intensity of solar radiation is low to begin with, huge and costly assemblies of such cells are required to produce even moderate amounts of power. (britannica.com)
  • However, layers of the Sun are radiating to outer layers only slightly lower in temperature, and it is this difference in radiation powers between layers which determines net power generation and transfer in the solar core. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • BP will close its solar-panel manufacturing plant in Frederick, the final step in moving its solar business out of the United States to facilities in China, India and other countries. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The global solar thermal market is dominated by China, Europe, Japan and India , although Israel was one of the first countries to mandate installation of SWH in 1980, leading to a flourishing industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing energy consumption and energy crisis in developing economies has brought the importance of solar energy in developing economies such as China, India, Brazil, Canada and Germany. (slideshare.net)
  • Bhadla Solar Park is one of the largest solar parks in India which is spread over a total area of 10,000 acres (40 km2) in Bhadla, Phalodi tehsil, Jodhpur district, Rajasthan, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The park has witnessed one of the lowest bids for tariff of Rs 2.44 per kWh, which is lowest for solar in India so far. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their bids of ₹2.62 per kilowatt hour were the lowest tariffs for any solar power project in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • investment in solar
  • But if tariffs and quotas are strict enough, investment in solar manufacturing will return to the U.S. and create jobs - the same way President Reagan saved the U.S. semiconductor industry . (usatoday.com)
  • 1974
  • In early 1974, Penn State researcher Stanley Gilman received an NSF grant to restore the building's solar heating system and operate it as part of a multi-year field study. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It was producing 125 millimeter multi-crystalline solar cells in Frederick while the rest of the industry had moved to 156 millimeter cells, which have become standard. (washingtonpost.com)
  • For convection cells on the moon's surface, see Granule (solar physics) . (wikipedia.org)
  • A "photoelectrolytic cell" ( photoelectrochemical cell ), on the other hand, refers either to a type of photovoltaic cell (like that developed by Edmond Becquerel and modern dye-sensitized solar cells ), or to a device that splits water directly into hydrogen and oxygen using only solar illumination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple solar cells in an integrated group, all oriented in one plane, constitute a solar photovoltaic panel or module . (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar cells are usually connected in series and parallel circuits or series in modules, creating an additive voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When exposed to light, the skin cells of someone with solar urticaria release potent chemicals (including histamine), causing their blood vessels to open and fluid to collect within the skin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The president has until Jan. 26 to decide whether to impose strong tariffs and strict limits on imports of solar cells and modules. (usatoday.com)
  • China's government funds its factories, resulting in a flood of artificially cheap solar cells and modules, causing worldwide prices to plummet . (usatoday.com)
  • Thousands of jobs have been lost, and if the president does not act, then this industry and its research and development for the next generation of solar cells will die. (usatoday.com)
  • By connecting large numbers of individual cells together, however, as in solar-panel arrays, hundreds or even thousands of kilowatts of electric power can be generated in a solar electric plant. (britannica.com)
  • The efficiency of the solar cells used in a photovoltaic system, in combination with latitude and climate, determines the annual energy output of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even the best solar cells can only collect limited power and energy over the area of a car's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive
  • Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air . (wikipedia.org)
  • Roof
  • Roof-mounted close-coupled thermosiphon solar water heater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Records of solar collectors in the U.S. date to before 1900, involving a black-painted tank mounted on a roof. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the energy crisis in the 1970s, in 1980 Israel required the installation of solar water heaters in all new homes (except high towers with insufficient roof area). (wikipedia.org)
  • A few true solar bicycles were built, either with a large solar roof, a small rear panel, or a trailer with a solar panel. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Batteries inside solar lamps usually use gel electrolyte technology with high performance in deep discharging, in order to enable use in extreme ranges of temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solar furnace has become an important tool in high-temperature research. (britannica.com)
  • Solar Lake develops some of the highest temperature solar-heated waters of any lake: certain layers can reach as high as 60 °C, temperatures matched only by some geothermal lakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond 30% of the solar radius, where temperature is 7 million K and density has fallen to 10 g/cm3 the rate of fusion is almost nil. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • LRSP is published under the auspices of the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research ( MPS ). (springer.com)
  • From a solar cell to a PV system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter , a battery pack for storage, interconnection wiring, and optionally a solar tracking mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and it is its output interface.Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy weatherproof connections to the rest of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Christiaan Huygens With a field-of-view encompassing 150,000 stars, NASA's Kepler mission delivered an overwhelming prize when it came to hunting worlds beyond our own Solar System: thousands of new exoplanets. (scienceblogs.com)
  • It is believed that in addition to losses from evaporation, there is a crack system at the bottom of the lake Monohydrocalcite and other carbonates appear to be deposited in Solar Lake by the action of benthic cyanobacterial mats (stromatolite), which may be 1 m thick. (wikipedia.org)
  • A solar pond is also a system for storing solar energy in a volume of highly saline water using the same principles as occur naturally Solar Lake. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the hottest part of the Sun and of the Solar System. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Solar Electric Vehicle system was designed and engineered as an easy to install (2 to 3 hours) integrated accessory system with a custom molded low profile solar module, supplemental battery pack and a proven charge controlling system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "solar" has evolved from actual hardware to an indirect accounting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time Ryan was frequently quoted and interviewed in the media about solar energy and the tariff system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The United Nations Development Programme in its 2000 World Energy Assessment found that the annual potential of solar energy was 1,575-49,837 exajoules (EJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculation assumed conditions appropriate for 2000 A.D.: a solar constant of S 0 = 1367 W m −2 , obliquity of ε = 23.4398°, longitude of perihelion of ϖ = 282.895°, eccentricity e = 0.016704. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sun's
  • The core inside 0.20 of the solar radius, contains 34% of the Sun's mass, but only 0.8% of the Sun's volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • sculpture
  • Solar Bird is a 1966 sculpture by Spanish artist Joan Miró. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Solar Pyramid was a proposed sculpture originally scheduled to open in June 2003 in the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar Wreath is a 1997 sculpture by American artist Larry Kirkland, located on the third floor of the Central Library in Portland, Oregon. (wikipedia.org)
  • California
  • Flat-plate collectors for solar water heating were used in Florida and Southern California in the 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Solar Cup is an eco-boating competition in Temecula, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paid for by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and taking place on Lake Skinner, the competition revolves around high school teams constructing solar powered electric boats. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • The solar constant is a conventional measure of mean TSI at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar cars lack the safety and convenience features of conventional vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar buses are to be distinguished from conventional buses in which electric functions of the bus such as lighting, heating or air-conditioning, but not the propulsion itself, are fed by solar energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • BP Solar said in January that Jabil Circuit would build a module assembly plant in Chihuahua, Mexico, to serve the U.S. market. (washingtonpost.com)
  • BP has applied to the Energy Department to help finance a proposed 32 megawatt solar-power generation plant on Long Island, N.Y., on land belonging to the Energy Department's Brookhaven National Laboratory. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Solar irradiance affects plant metabolism and animal behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • arrays
  • The company installed more than 1000 rooftop solar arrays between 2007 and 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of this, the company partnered with Australia's National Information and Communications Technology Research Centre of Excellence in 2013 to develop methods of forecasting output from solar arrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • drops
  • Due to fusion, the composition of the solar plasma drops from 68-70% hydrogen by mass at the outer core, to 33% hydrogen at the core/Sun center. (wikipedia.org)
  • develops
  • Solar urticaria sometimes develops in patients who are taking a drug (aspirin and morphine-like medicines) or are exposed to a particular chemical. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • fossil fuels
  • In the 21st century solar energy is expected to become increasingly attractive as an energy source because of its inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, in stark contrast to the finite fossil fuels coal , petroleum , and natural gas . (britannica.com)
  • large
  • Flat plate solar systems were perfected and used on a large scale in Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, has hall and large solar block later converted into a tower. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems , concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common application of solar energy collection outside agriculture is solar water heating systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frank Shuman built the world's first solar thermal power station in Maadi, Egypt , using parabolic troughs to power a 60-70 horsepower engine that pumped 6,000 gallons of water per minute from the Nile River to adjacent cotton fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levi Yissar built the first prototype Israeli solar water heater and in 1953 he launched the NerYah Company, Israel's first commercial manufacturer of solar water heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solar water heaters were used by 20% of the population by 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colombia developed a local solar water heating industry thanks to the designs of Las Gaviotas , directed by Paolo Lugari. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to water volume retention, floating solar plants provide additional water quality benefits, of particular benefit to potable water infrastructure management. (wikipedia.org)
  • The creation of solar farms on urban water supply infrastructure is generally advantageous given there are no costs usually associated with land-based solar farms (land purchase, clearing, maintenance, and insurance against flooding). (wikipedia.org)
  • investors
  • American investors have been working towards developing a $10 / unit solar lantern for replacement of kerosene lamps. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Solar Cup begins with sign up in December, and includes a boat-building event and several workshops focusing on technical aspects such as drive trains, electrical systems, solar power collection and steering systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • China
  • Anticipating renewed growth in the U.S. market, other companies -- including Yingli Solar of China, Schott Solar of Germany and Kyocera Solar of Japan -- are planning to open facilities in the United States. (washingtonpost.com)
  • American solar manufacturers have played by the rules but have come under relentless assault by China and its proxies. (usatoday.com)
  • If the president's actions are not strong enough, U.S. solar manufacturing will die and China will be incentivized to attack other technologically leading American industries. (usatoday.com)
  • total
  • The theoretical area of the small black dots is sufficient to supply the world's total energy needs of 18 TW with solar power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pink Floyd No matter how well-prepared you were for your first total solar eclipse, no amount of reading or photograph-searching could do the experience justice. (scienceblogs.com)
  • R. D. Laing This coming Monday, tens of millions of people will gather to watch the total solar eclipse that will go coast-to-coast across the continental United States. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Total solar eclipses like this happen, on average, about once every 18 months, due to the frequency of alignment as well as the Moon's apparent angular size. (scienceblogs.com)