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  • semi-arid areas
  • Some of the soils common in semi-arid areas are particularly vulnerable, either because they have poor resistance to erosion (high erodibility), or because of their chemical and physical properties. (fao.org)
  • There are always strong links between measures for soil conservation and measures for water conservation, and this applies equally in semi-arid areas. (fao.org)
  • clay
  • Soils with higher clay content, which tend to retain these substances, are therefore usually better suited for agriculture. (encyclopedia.com)
  • water molecules hold more tightly to the fine particles of a clay soil than to coarser particles of a sandy soil, so clays generally retain more water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clay type, organic content , and soil structure also influence soil water retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inceptisol soil profiles give some indication of clay minerals, metal oxides, or humus accumulating in layers, but such accumulation is not sufficient to classify the soil into an order defined by characteristic surface or subsurface horizons. (britannica.com)
  • As the soil dries, ions released by mineral weathering or introduced by saline groundwater tend to accumulate in the form of carbonate, sulfate , chloride, and clay minerals. (britannica.com)
  • Soil chemical controls on C concentrations were investigated with multiple linear regression models using iron, aluminum and clay variables. (upenn.edu)
  • Multiple linear regression models with ammonium oxalate extractable iron and aluminum, dithionite-citrate-extractable iron and aluminum, and clay contents explained as much as 74% of the variation in C concentrations, and indicated that organo-mineral complexation may be more limited in poorly developed valley soils. (upenn.edu)
  • To determine whether your soil is sandy or high in clay, try the ribbon test. (diynetwork.com)
  • erosion
  • Exposure of soils to wind and rain during cultivation encourages erosion of the fertile surface. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Minimum-tillage systems, often entailing herbicide use, avoid erosion and maintain soil structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It follows that attempts to eliminate soil erosion completely may be unrealistic, and that some level of erosion may have to be accepted, and also some risk' of soil conservation measures failing. (fao.org)
  • They commonly are found either with underlying weathering-resistant parent material (for example, quartzite or siliceous sandstone ) or in topographic settings conducive to soil erosion or waterlogging. (britannica.com)
  • More broadly, the primary causes of erosion are water (flow or wave action), moving ice, wind and gravity - loose, sandy soils (ill-suited to food production at any rate) are the most frequently lost, and the deposition of these soils as sediment s in water bodies can lead to other issues, such as water salinity and turbidity . (everything2.com)
  • organisms
  • Much of this retained water can be used by plants and other organisms , thus contributing to land productivity and soil health . (wikipedia.org)
  • Soils sustain our food systems, filter and regulate the flow of freshwater, store vast quantities of carbon and support myriad organisms. (nature.com)
  • a distinct layer of soil, approximately parallel with the land surface, whose properties develop from the combined actions of living organisms and percolating water. (britannica.com)
  • There are more organisms in a kilogram of soil, for instance, than there are human beings on Earth. (everything2.com)
  • degradation
  • The European strategies for protecting biodiversity and combating climate change should focus on soil: the EU must develop a roadmap towards a land degradation neutral world. (slowfood.com)
  • The letter​, refers to the UN objective "halt land degradation globally by 2030" and is addressed to the European Commission, asking to do its part as European policies have a deep influence on the soils of the rest of the world. (slowfood.com)
  • She was elaborating on the irony mentioned in the Greenpeace report that, on one end, the Indian government worries about the degradation of soil and on the other, continues to promote chemical fertilizers. (greenpeace.org)
  • crop
  • In agriculture , soil is the medium that supports crop plants, both physically and biologically. (encyclopedia.com)
  • many land managers engage in the practice of burning crop stubble in order to accommodate for later yields, but this leaves the soil surface unprotected and soil particles are more easily loosened by wind or water (especially heavy rain). (everything2.com)
  • Direct drilling , a method of crop plantation which does not require soil to be disturbed, is a worthwhile investment to this end (although the necessary machinery is expensive). (everything2.com)
  • Soil pH is a pivotal factor in crop growth through a number of biological and chemical factors. (everything2.com)
  • salinity
  • Because all Na + (sodium) and K + (potassium) and many Ca 2+ (calcium) and Mg 2+ (magnesium) salts of chloride, sulfide, and carbonate are readily soluble, it is this set of metal ions that contributes most to soil salinity. (britannica.com)
  • conservationists
  • Soil water, its changes over time and management are of interest to geo-technicians and soil conservationists with an interest in maintaining soil stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach by soil conservationists in the 1980s is moving away from using mechanical works and structures in soil conservation programmes paid for by a government or a donor-funded project. (fao.org)
  • chemical fertilizers
  • Because of the health risk, and the availability of cheap and effective chemical fertilizers , the use of night soil is decreasing. (everything2.com)
  • The continuous and extensive use of chemical fertilizers since the Green Revolution has destroyed life in the soil and the complete neglect of ecological fertilization has led to depletion of organic matter in the soil which is vital for maintaining the health of the soil. (greenpeace.org)
  • Farmers can reclaim their soil by shifting away from chemical fertilizers to ecological fertilization, which will not only fix the problems in their soil but also provide sustained production. (greenpeace.org)
  • functions of soil
  • The United Nations General Assembly has declared 2015 the International Year of Soils to raise awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil. (nature.com)
  • This book is about digital soil morphometrics which is defined as the application of tools and techniques for measuring, mapping and quantifying soil profile properties, and deriving depth functions of soil properties. (springer.com)
  • glyphosate
  • Un-Earthed: Is Monsanto's Glyphosate Destroying The Soil? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • After all, in 2007, 176 million lbs of an extremely toxic herbicide known as glyphosate , 1 first created by Monsanto, was sprayed onto the soil (and everything standing between it) in this country, with untold environmental and human health fallout. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • a finding that runs contrary to manufacturer's claims that glyphosate is readily "biodegradable" and even "makes the soil cleaner," which it does not. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The Soil Association is calling on bread producers and supermarkets to stop making and selling bread products that contain traces of Glyphosate. (theecologist.org)
  • ecological
  • The ecological balance of soil bacteria is affected beneficially, contributing to the holistic effect. (google.com)
  • Walker LR, Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Clarkson BD (2010) The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development. (upenn.edu)
  • pollutants
  • In suburban and urban areas, much of the water that hits the landscape washes away down the storm drains, often carrying pollutants and soil with it. (nwf.org)
  • Many of these so-called xenobiotic (from Greek xenos , "stranger," and bios , "life") chemicals have been found to be carcinogens or may accumulate in the environment with toxic effects on ecosystems (see the table of major soil pollutants). (britannica.com)
  • Not all soil pollutants are xenobiotic compounds. (britannica.com)
  • characteristics
  • A product-soil differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics. (wiktionary.org)
  • Observation of soil profile: Certain profile characteristics can be indicators of either acid, saline, or sodic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil chemistry studies the chemical characteristics of soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Some characteristics of changing plant and soil biological communities (e.g. species richness, plant cover, vegetation structure, soil organic matter accumulation) are more likely to be related in a predictable and temporally linear manner than are other characteristics (e.g. species composition and abundance) and are therefore more reliably studied using a chronosequence approach. (upenn.edu)
  • Learn how to check soil conditions and what kinds of characteristics 'good' soil should have. (diynetwork.com)
  • factors
  • geographic relief and the geological age of the developing soil are also factors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The mortality of seeds in the soil is one of the key factors for the persistence and density fluctuations of plant populations, especially for annual plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inceptisols are soils of relatively new origin and are characterized by having only the weakest appearance of horizons , or layers, produced by soil-forming factors. (britannica.com)
  • The health of soil is threatened by a number of factors. (everything2.com)
  • Additional factors were also investigated, including topographically-related differences in litter dynamics and soil chemistry. (upenn.edu)
  • occur
  • This rise can occur through capillary action , which means that (in general, depending upon soil type) a watertable a metre below the surface can visibly manifest as white salt crust on the ground surface. (everything2.com)
  • They can also be reliably used to study aspects of soil development that occur between temporally linked sites over time-scales of centuries to millennia, sometimes independently of their application to shorter-term plant and soil biological communities. (upenn.edu)
  • remediation
  • Nelson's multi-disciplinary Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences capstone class focused on the soil contamination and remediation at the site. (k-state.edu)
  • utilize
  • Available water is that which the plants can utilize from the soil within the range between field capacity and wilting point . (wikipedia.org)
  • Utilize these tips when selecting soil to get the best results in your yard. (diynetwork.com)
  • gravity
  • Some of this water will steadily drain through the soil (via gravity ) and end up in the waterways and streams , but much of it will be retained , despite the influence of gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • This collection brings together a selection of articles that explore soil in its manifold roles in shaping the Earth's environment and human society. (nature.com)
  • The Earth's Soil Is at Risk. (slowfood.com)
  • vegetation type
  • To better understand the spatial distribution of SOC in this system, plots previously characterized by topographic position, vegetation type and stand age were related to soil depth and SOC. (upenn.edu)
  • Exposure
  • Although human exposure to these substances is primarily through inhalation or drinking water , soils play an important role because they affect the mobility and biological impact of these toxins. (britannica.com)
  • Healthy
  • Healthy and productive soils are central to achieving a number of the 17 sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations General Assembly this year. (nature.com)