• There is an unmet need for adjunctive non-insulin-based therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D). (touchendocrinology.com)
  • However, despite significant advances in the availability of more physiological insulin preparations, insulin delivery devices including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, most patients fail to achieve glycemic targets. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Decreasing insulin response to food and helping maintain normal serum glucose levels by slowing down the absorption rate of carbohydrates, thereby lowering insulin requirements. (jonbarron.org)
  • They work independently of insulin and can reduce glucose levels without causing hypoglycemia or weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phlorizin seemed to have very interesting properties and the results in animal studies were encouraging, it improved insulin sensitivity and in diabetic rat models it seemed to increase glucose levels in urine and also normal glucose concentration in plasma occurred without hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative mRNA expressions of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 in the small intestine mucosa increased linearly, and a similar pattern was observed for the expression of peptide transporter-1 in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. (cambridge.org)
  • Interestingly, fructose-fed, insulin-resistant hamsters showed a more pronounced response, including possible hypersensitivity to GLP-2 or reduced sensitivity to GLP-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • GLP-1 promotes insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner and preserves pancreatic β-cell function ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The low-insulin-index diet, is similar, except it is based on measurements of direct insulemic responses i.e., the amount of insulin in the bloodstream to food rather than glycemic response the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limiting carbohydrate consumption is a traditional treatment for diabetes - indeed, it was the only effective treatment before the development of insulin therapy - and when carefully adhered to, it generally results in improved glucose control, usually without long-term weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether mechanisms exist to promote cell-surface translocation of these transporters is not yet known, but it has clearly been established that insulin does not promote GLUT6 and GLUT8 cell-surface translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, dapagliflozin reduces the blood glucose concentration with a mechanism that is independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity, unlike many other antidiabetic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLUT4 transporters are insulin sensitive, and are found in muscle and adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants do not produce enough insulin, leading to an increase in glucose accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanism is associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia (too low blood glucose) compared to sulfonylurea derivatives and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibits the peripheral use of glucose (insulin resistance) by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters (especially GLUT4) to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of mRNA for the PGE 2 receptor subtypes 1-4 was assayed in enterocytes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (bmj.com)
  • 5 In addition, in the isolated perfused small intestine and in suspensions of mature enterocytes of the rat, enteroglucagon-37 (oxyntomodulin) cAMP-dependently increased glucose absorption via the SGLT1. (bmj.com)
  • Class II comprises: GLUT5 (SLC2A5), a fructose transporter in enterocytes GLUT7 - SLC2A7 - (SLC2A7), found in the small and large intestine, transporting glucose out of the endoplasmic reticulum GLUT9 - SLC2A9 - (SLC2A9) GLUT11 (SLC2A11) Class III comprises: GLUT6 (SLC2A6), GLUT8 (SLC2A8), GLUT10 (SLC2A10), GLUT12 (SLC2A12), and GLUT13, also H+/myoinositol transporter HMIT (SLC2A13), primarily expressed in brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least four members of SLC-5 gene family, which are secondary active glucose transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995). "Human and rat beta cells differ in glucose transporter but not in glucokinase gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SLC gene nomenclature system was originally proposed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) and is the basis for the official HGNC names of the genes that encode these transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene result in a mitochondrial ornithine transporter that is unstable or the wrong shape, and which cannot bring ornithine to the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • This action creates a downhill sodium ion gradient from the outside to the inside of the proximal tubule cell (that is, in comparison to both the blood and the tubule itself). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the concentration gradient of glucose opposes its reabsorption, and energy is required for its transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy stored in an inwardly directed electrochemical sodium gradient (sodium motive force, SMF) which is used to drive solute accumulation against a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the gut, for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on the blood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na+ -K+ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (lumenal) side, the Na+ -glucose symporter uses the created Na+ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na+ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the Solute:Sodium Symporter (SSS) Family (TC# 2.A.21) catalyze solute:Na+ symport. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ordered binding model of sodium/substrate transport suggests that sodium binds to the empty transporter first, thereby inducing a conformational alteration which increases the affinity of the transporter for the solute. (wikipedia.org)
  • In taste cells, the detection of sugars and sweeteners depends on T1R2+T1R3, a heterodimer of type 1 taste receptor subunits (T1Rs) ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The function of these new glucose transporter isoforms is still not clearly defined at present. (wikipedia.org)
  • All mammals have four different sodium pump sub-types, or isoforms, that each has unique properties and tissue expression patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four isoforms of PMCA, called PMCA 1 through 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • the role of the kidney in the development and maintenance of high glucose levels has been examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are decreased kidney reabsorption of glucose, glucosuria effect increases with higher level of glucose in the blood circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the kidney, glucose is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the tubule lumen, where it is at a relatively low concentration, passes through the simple cuboidal epithelia lining the kidney tubule, and into the bloodstream where glucose is at a comparatively high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These responses affect the maintenance of the intestinal barrier, systemic inflammation, and glucose metabolism. (jci.org)
  • In the current study, we evaluated the apparent paradoxical roles of GLP-1 and GLP-2 under physiological conditions in the Syrian golden hamster, a model with close similarity to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It is actively imported into the endoplasmic reticulum of cells via glucose transporters. (wikipedia.org)