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  • excretion
  • We calculated fractional excretion of lithium and fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium, as markers of proximal and distal sodium handling, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANP acts on the kidney to increase sodium and water excretion (natriuresis) in the following ways: 1) it dilates the glomerular afferent and constrict efferent arterioles, and relaxes the mesangial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) It increases blood flow through the vasa recta, which washes the solutes sodium chloride (NaCl) and urea out of the medullary interstitium - the lower osmolarity here leads to less reabsorption of tubular fluid and increased excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Intersalt study was an observational study that showed an association between dietary salt, measured by urinary excretion, and blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996). "Intersalt revisited: further analyses of 24 hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substance
  • Studies in anesthetized rats showed a lack of an increase in afferent renal nerve activity in response to increased renal pelvic pressure and impaired prostaglandin E 2 -mediated release of substance P from the renal pelvic nerves in DRX rats fed either a high or a normal sodium diet, suggesting that DRX resulted in decreased responsiveness of peripheral renal sensory nerves. (ahajournals.org)
  • amount of sodium
  • Sodium ratio refers to the amount of sodium per amount of food eaten, usually in grams per kilocalorie, or milligrams per kilocalorie. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increases pressure in the glomerular capillaries, increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), resulting in an increased amount of sodium and water being filtered and excreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • diet
  • This paper reviews the evidence that salt sensitivity of blood pressure is related both to the anion ingested with sodium as well as to other components of the diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These observations indicate that the effect of dietary sodium on blood pressure is modulated by other components of the diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DRX and sham-DRX rats were fed either a high or a normal sodium diet for 3 weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, mean arterial pressure was similar in DRX and sham-DRX rats fed a normal sodium diet, 115±1 and 113±1 mm Hg, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, when the afferent limb of the renorenal reflex is interrupted, a high sodium diet results in increased arterial pressure to facilitate the natriuresis and maintenance of sodium balance. (ahajournals.org)
  • The responsiveness of renal sensory nerves is modulated by dietary sodium, being suppressed by a low and enhanced by a high sodium (HNa) diet. (ahajournals.org)
  • The rats were fed either an HNa or a normal sodium (NNa) diet for 25 days. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine the effect of dietary sodium intake on nitric oxide-mediated vascular responses, we studied seven healthy male volunteers twice 4 weeks apart while they were receiving a diet containing 10 or 250 mmol Na+ per 24 hours. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Within the assigned diet, participants ate foods with high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium for 30 consecutive days each, in random order. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, groups concerned with cardiovascular health and nutrition emphasize the overall negative effects of high levels of sodium in the North American diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Diet - Too much dietary sodium encourages fluid retention and may lead to puffy eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DASH diet is based on NIH studies that examined three dietary plans and their results. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DASH and DASH-sodium trials demonstrated that a carbohydrate-rich diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and that is reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol substantially lowered blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of both diet and sodium reduction work together, meaning the more you improve your diet to include less saturated fat, more fruits and vegetables and less saturated fat OR lower your sodium intake significantly below what is typical in industrialized nations, like the United States, the greater the benefit will be seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial blood pr
  • Secondarily, the investigators will explore the impact of the intervention on: (a) pre-dialysis pulse pressure and mean arterial blood pressure, (b) hemodialysis dietary self-efficacy, and (c) intradialytic and postdialytic symptoms and general health-related quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • diets
  • Throughout human history, getting too much sodium in our diets was not an issue. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Almost half of all Americans have at least one sandwich on any given day which supplies 21% of the sodium requirement in men's diets and 16% in women's diets, researchers have analysed. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • University of Toronto researchers analyzed regular, diabetic and sodium-restricted diets between November 2010 and August 2011. (healthcanal.com)
  • milligrams
  • Sodium levels were compared with the adequate intake level of 1,500 mg a day and the tolerable upper limit of 2,300 milligrams a day. (healthcanal.com)
  • The study found the mean sodium level in preset daily menus (where the patient does not make any food choices) was 2,896 milligrams of sodium, almost double the adequate daily intake and almost 600 milligrams more than the upper tolerable limit. (healthcanal.com)
  • Total dietary sodium measures the amount (in grams or milligrams) of sodium in the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • tertile
  • When, within each urinary sodium tertile, patients were divided into those with plasma aldosterone concentration below and above the median (11.6 ng/dL), LVMI progressively increased across sodium tertiles only in patients with high plasma aldosterone concentration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hypernatremia
  • Excessive salt (sodium) intake, combined with an inadequate intake of water, can cause hypernatremia. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANP is secreted in response to: Stretching of the atrial wall, via Atrial volume receptors Increased Sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors Increased sodium concentration (hypernatremia), though sodium concentration is not the direct stimulus for increased ANP secretion Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor Three types of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors have been identified on which natriuretic peptides act. (wikipedia.org)
  • grams
  • The World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Example: The claim "(naming the food or food constituent) promotes regularity or laxation" can be used for coarse wheat bran providing a minimum of 7 grams of dietary fibre in a reasonable daily intake of the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astronauts are well known to have orthostatic intolerance upon reentry to gravity after long-duration spaceflight, and the dietary sodium on orbit is also known to be in excess of 5 grams per day in some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • association between dietary salt
  • Hence, in this study we aimed to determine the association between dietary salt intake and 1 ) all-cause mortality and 2 ) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 2,807 patients with type 1 diabetes from the large nationwide multicenter cohort of Finnish adults with type 1 diabetes (the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy [FinnDiane] Study) ( 7 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • comes from processed foods
  • Based upon a study carried out in the US in 1991 on a total of 62 people, the presumption made is that most of the sodium Canadians consume (77%) comes from processed foods sold in grocery stores and in food service outlets. (wikipedia.org)
  • mmol
  • Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (0.2 mmol/kg IP, Abbott Laboratories). (ahajournals.org)
  • salts
  • Seasoning salts like celery or garlic salt, as well as sodium-containing condiments. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • If we could cut down on the amount of added sodium we get from processed foods, there would be more than enough room in our 'sodium budget' to enjoy both the culinary and health benefits of gourmet and sea salts, both rich in minerals. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • respectively
  • We conclude that under conditions of salt loading, vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside was enhanced, whereas the response to methacholine was not affected, suggesting a differential effect of sodium intake on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses after the administration of methacholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • decrease
  • Changes in sodium-lithium countertransport and intracellular sodium concentration were evaluated 24 days after a decrease in dietary sodium from approximately 110 to 40 mEq per day. (nih.gov)
  • They calculate that a decrease of 9.5% in mean population sodium intake (similar to the decline experienced in the United Kingdom ) would probably prevent hundreds of thousands of strokes and heart attacks and save more than $32 billion in medical expenses over the lifetimes of adults aged 40 to 85 years who are alive today (11) . (annals.org)
  • salt
  • The problem is simple: we consume far too much sodium from salt and processed foods . (naturallysavvy.com)
  • A study in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests that by cutting back on as little as ½ teaspoon of salt a day (1200-1500mg of sodium) thousands of lives could be saved by reducing the number of strokes and heart attacks. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Processed and prepared foods which use sodium-based additives such as sodium benzoate (a mold inhibitor) or salt to add flavoring. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Regarding our intake of sodium, the salt we add during cooking makes up about 5% of the total, salt added at the table accounts for about 6%, 12% comes from natural sources and over 77% is from processed and prepared foods . (naturallysavvy.com)
  • The United States Department of Health and Human Services recommends that individuals consume no more than 1500-2300 mg of sodium (3750-5750 mg of salt) per day depending on race, medical condition and age. (wikipedia.org)
  • The form used as an artificial sweetener is usually its sodium salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The salt industry and some food and beverage producers emphasize the heterogeneous impact of sodium on individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This follows actions in the United Kingdom to abolish the dietary mandate of the FSA (Food Standards Agency) the government unit most actively involved in salt reduction advocacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • baseline
  • Self-reported dietary sodium, self-efficacy, symptoms, and quality of life will be assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 4 month and differences will be examined using repeated measures modeling using GEE. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • levels
  • We found sodium levels in hospital meals to be unacceptably high," says Dr. JoAnne Arcand of the University of Toronto's Department of Nutritional Sciences and lead author of the study. (healthcanal.com)
  • Exposing patients to these high levels of sodium undermines their health," says Dr. Andrew Pipe, chief of prevention and rehabilitation at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. (healthcanal.com)
  • The food industry and those planning and ordering foods for hospital patients should be aware of the risks of feeding such high levels of sodium to patients. (healthcanal.com)
  • the average sodium intake has increased over the past 30 years from already high levels to more than double the recommended amount (1, 2) . (annals.org)
  • and the difference was greater with high sodium levels than with low ones. (nih.gov)
  • Stomach cancer is associated with high levels of sodium, "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors include reduced physical activity levels and excess dietary sodium intake from foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • We reasoned that if activation of afferent renal nerves contributes to the homeostatic regulation of arterial pressure and sodium balance, then selective afferent renal denervation would alter the hemodynamic responses to a dietary sodium load. (ahajournals.org)
  • conclude
  • Smith-Spangler and colleagues conclude that strategies to reduce sodium intake on a population level in the United States can be both effective and cost-effective. (annals.org)
  • less
  • Women get less sodium from a sandwich, 489 mg a day, but this still needs to be considered, explains Rhonda S Sebastian (Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, MD). (onlymyhealth.com)
  • daily
  • Read nutrition labels - the % DV (or daily value) for sodium is based on the Upper Limit of 2400mg, therefore try to choose products that offer 10% DV of sodium per serving. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • Specifically the investigators will: (a) Assess the impact of the intervention on average daily interdialytic weight gains (IDWG-A). (b) Examine the impact of the intervention on self-reported dietary sodium intake. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This accounts for one-fifth of their total daily intake sodium intake. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • TORONTO, ON - A study of food served to patients in three Ontario acute-care hospitals found 100 per cent of bedside meals had more than the recommended daily intake of sodium, according a report published online today in the Archives of Internal Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
  • retention
  • A link between increased ICP and altered sodium and water retention was suggested by a report in which 77% of IIH patients had evidence of peripheral edema and 80% with orthostatic retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • decline
  • The study hypotheses are that compared to the control group, the intervention group will: (1) demonstrate a statistically significant decline in IDWG-A over the 4-month intervention period, and (2) experience a greater decline in dietary sodium intake. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • fibre
  • The addition of dietary fibre present in high levels is effective in achieving this texture, and is useful in promoting chewing in order to increase contact with teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium
  • Sodium tripolyphosphates as an example, are able to bind directly to the enamel as well as the mineralized sections of the teeth where it takes up the binding sites for calcium to attach, and interacts with calcium already bonded to enamel, to prevent it being able to form crystals. (wikipedia.org)