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  • extracellular amino
  • Treatment of yeast and Drosophila larvae with rapamycin causes a starvation-like phenotype ( 2 , 7 , 17 , 39 ), and in mammalian cells, extracellular amino acids regulate the activity of two translational regulators downstream of RAFT1, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and 4E-BP1 ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • leucine
  • Exhibits preference for the branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, valine and isoleucine and methionine. (nih.gov)
  • intracellular
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • free amino acid
  • Effect of abomasal administration of lysine and methionine or lysine alone on nitrogen balance and plasma free amino acid concentrations in early-weaned calves fed a corn and soybean meal diet. (azabu-u.ac.jp)
  • fetal growth
  • Decreased placental mTOR activity causes down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. (antibodies-online.com)
  • SNAT2
  • As amino acids represent a large fraction of cell organic osmolytes, changes of SNAT2 activity are followed by modifications in both cell amino acids and cell volume. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • System A and L amino acid transport and SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4 isoform expression was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased availability of unsaturated fatty acids can compromise the stress-induced induction/adaptation in SNAT2 expression. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ions
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and NRF2 pathway . (genecards.org)
  • nutrients
  • A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Solute Carriers (SLCs) are involved in the transport of substances across lipid bilayers, including nutrients like amino acids. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • subunit
  • Sodium channels are composed of one pore-forming α subunit of approximately 2000 amino acid residues associated with one or two smaller auxiliary subunits, β1to β4 ( Catterall, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • subtype
  • Voltage-dependent reversal of the ProTx-II effect is more rapid for cardiac Na v 1.5 channels, suggesting subtype-specific action of this toxin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • "Structure and function of ATA3, a new subtype of amino acid transport system A, primarily expressed in the liver and skeletal muscle. (tcdb.org)