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  • SNAP
  • Amperometry in chromaffin cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) have been used to test the involvement of single amino acids in exocytotic function, overcoming some of the limitations of studies based on Botulinum neurotoxin cleavage, as this occurs at defined sites of the protein. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, our strategy was based in overexpressing native as well as altered forms of SNAP-25 coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in bovine chromaffin cells and studying the effect produced by these constructs in the secretory properties of the cells. (pnas.org)
  • SNAP-25 (25-kDa synaptosome- associated protein) is a SNARE protein of the exocytotic machinery localized at the plasma and synaptic vesicle membranes of neurons and components of the disseminated neuroendocrine system. (springer.com)
  • Isoforms of SNAP-25 are SNAP-23 and the two alternative splice variants SNAP-25a and SNAP-25b which contain two SNARE motifs. (springer.com)
  • VAMP
  • To date, there is a lack of detailed information with regard to how BoNTs recognize and hydrolyse the substrate VAMP-2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), even though it is known to be cleaved by four of the seven BoNT serotypes, B, D, F, G and TeNT (tetanus neurotoxin). (biochemj.org)
  • neurotoxins
  • Cleavage of SNAREs by Clostridial neurotoxins has been established as an essential tool to investigate the role of these proteins in neurotransmission ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • lipid
  • Lipid Regulated Intramolecular Conformational Dynamics of SNARE-Protein Ykt6. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the constant flux of proteins and lipid through these compartments their functional and composition integrity is maintained. (springer.com)
  • Munc18
  • After association, Munc18-1 and the SNARE bundle together drive membrane merging without further involving the N-peptide. (nih.gov)
  • vacuolar
  • The SGR2 (At1g31480) gene encodes a phospholipase A1-like protein localized to the vacuolar membrane, although its biochemical function is not yet known. (pnas.org)
  • cleavage
  • The domain restriction imposed by toxin cleavage prompted us to design a new approach to the involvement of specific SNAREs residues in discrete stages of the exocytotic process. (pnas.org)
  • Ypt1p
  • Cao X, Ballew N, Barlowe C (1998) Initial docking of ER-derived vesicles requires Uso1p and Ypt1p but is independent of SNARE proteins. (springer.com)
  • kinase
  • Our previous work has identified an MAP kinase kinase, SIP2, as a SymRK-interacting protein to positively regulate nodule organogenesis in Lotus japonicus, suggesting that an MAPK cascade might be involved in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. (scoop.it)