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  • receptor
  • The neurotransmitter is bound by a protein (receptor) in the postsynaptic membrane of the adjoining nerve cell causing, in turn, the transmission of an electrical pulse down the axon of the second nerve cell. (samento.com.ec)
  • receptors
  • However, recent years have made clear their general role both in protective and disease-promoting inflammatory responses that involve stimulation through a wide array of surface-expressed receptors including IgG Fc receptors, different types of G protein-coupled receptors, Toll-like receptors, etc. (frontiersin.org)
  • For instance, mono-ubiquitination of transmembrane proteins, such as receptors for trophic factors and ligand-gated ion channels, often serves as an internalization signal and thereby modulating the activity of signaling pathways ( Hicke, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the cerebellum, synapses between parallel fiber neurons and Purkinje cells are specified by the simultaneous interactions of secreted protein cerebellin with pre-synaptic neurexin and post-synaptic delta-type glutamate receptors (GluD). (stanford.edu)
  • vesicular
  • A variety of cell‐free systems that reconstitute distinct transport steps were utilized to identify many proteins implicated in intracellular vesicular transport. (embopress.org)
  • Expression of this signal in transfected cells disrupts the endogenous Golgi spectrin skeleton and blocks transport of α- and β-Na,K-ATPase and vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but does not disrupt the formation of Golgi stacks, the distribution of β-COP, or the transport and surface display of E-cadherin. (pnas.org)
  • We postulate that together with polyfunctional adapter proteins such as Ank G119 , Golgi spectrin forms a docking complex that acts prior to the cis-Golgi, presumably with vesicular-tubular clusters (VTCs or ERGIC), to sequester specific membrane proteins into vesicles transiting between the ER and Golgi, and subsequently (probably involving other isoforms of spectrin and ankyrin) to mediate cargo transport within the Golgi and to other membrane compartments. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesize that this vesicular spectrin-ankyrin adapter-protein trafficking (or tethering) system (SAATS) mediates the capture and transport of many membrane proteins and acts in conjunction with vesicle-targeting molecules to effect the efficient transport of cargo proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a requirement for Golgi spectrin in membrane protein transport and suggest that the vesicular spectrin skeleton acts to select cargo molecules destined for anterograde vesicular transport. (pnas.org)
  • exocytosis
  • Here we have examined the effect of overexpression of a dominant negative α-SNAP mutant or Csp on exocytosis of dense-core granules in single chromaffin cells monitored using amperometry to detect released catecholamine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Exocytosis of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived dense-core granules was substantially inhibited by expression of α-SNAP(L294A). (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that unlike α-SNAP, Csp plays a key role in the protein interactions close to the fusion process or fusion pore opening during Ca 2+ -regulated exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mutant ZNRF proteins with a disrupted RING finger, a domain necessary for their E3 function, can each inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent exocytosis in PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is therefore in subsequent rounds of synaptic vesicle exocytosis that the activity-dependent stimulation of protein kinases and phosphatases becomes manifest. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover Rab27a, a GTPase implicated in the regulation of the exocytosis of secretory granules and lysosome-related organelles is also downregulated at protein level. (units.it)
  • soluble proteins
  • Rapid and efficient homotypic fusion between saltwashed vacuoles requires the addition of only two purified soluble proteins, Sec18p (NSF) and LMA1, a novel heterodimer with a thioredoxin subunit. (rupress.org)
  • secretory
  • A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1, and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by APs. (frontiersin.org)
  • These professional secretory cells devote as much as half of their total protein synthesis to the production of a single hormone ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Golgi
  • The Golgi spectrin skeleton is thus required for the transport of a subset of membrane proteins from the ER to the Golgi. (pnas.org)
  • Complex pathways of coated vesicle budding, transport, and fusion link the synthesis of membrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport and membrane assembly ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet, direct evidence that Golgi spectrin participates in vesicle or membrane protein trafficking is lacking. (pnas.org)
  • We have used Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human βIΣ1 and βIΣ2 spectrin to determine the regions of spectrin necessary for its association with the Golgi, and evaluated the impact of these constructs on the native Golgi spectrin skeleton, Golgi integrity, and the transport of Na,K-ATPase, VSV-G protein, and E-cadherin from the ER to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • SNAP was identified as being required for vesicle fusion in intra Golgi transport reaction in vitro. (novusbio.com)
  • These findings suggest novel roles for ?SNAP in promoting the formation of epithelial AJs and TJs by controlling Golgi-dependent expression and trafficking of junctional proteins. (jove.com)
  • MACF1b proteins can be detected in the enriched Golgi fraction by western blotting. (biologists.org)
  • Reducing the level of MACF1 proteins by small-interfering RNA resulted in the dispersal of the Golgi complex. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we summarize current knowledge of how multiple synaptic precursor structures derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport synaptic proteins to sites of synaptic contact, where they are trapped and mature into a functional synaptic machinery. (biologists.org)
  • kinase
  • Prolonged insulin stimulation down-regulates GLUT4 through oxidative stress-mediated retromer inhibition by a protein kinase CK2-dependent mechanism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The downstream effectors include well characterized signal molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and phospholipase C-γ. (jneurosci.org)
  • In cultured cerebellar granule cells, the overall level of rabphilin phosphorylation was increased approximately twofold after stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) and high K + -induced membrane depolarization ( Fykse, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • target proteins
  • The classical view of ubiquitination is to target proteins for degradation by a multi-subunit, ATP-dependent protease termed the proteosome ( Pickart, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • complex
  • BKV agnoprotein and α-SNAP were found to partially co-localize in cells, and a complex consisting of agnoprotein and α-SNAP could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells ectopically expressing the proteins as well as from BKV-transfected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • fusion
  • The requirement for Ca 2+ for fusion was a later event than the requirement for a rab protein since the system became resistant to inhibition by GDP dissociation inhibitor at earlier times than it became resistant to BAPTA. (rupress.org)
  • Fusion was shown to be ATP-, cytosol-, and temperature-dependent, required the presence of N -ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), and was inhibited by GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI). (rupress.org)
  • The amplitude and characteristics of the individual release events were unaffected by expression of α-SNAP(L294A), consistent with an essential role for α-SNAP in early steps of priming but not in the fusion process. (jneurosci.org)
  • however, an essential requirement for SNAP/NSF function before dense-core granule fusion has not been demonstrated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recombinant fusion proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with glutathione-resin (Amersham Biosciences). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with amylose-resin (New England BioLabs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, when starting with syntaxin-1-SNAP-25 liposomes, NSF-α-SNAP disassembled the syntaxin-1-SNAP-25 heterodimers and abrogated fusion, which then required Munc18-1 and Munc13. (sciencemag.org)
  • and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) plus its cofactor α-SNAP are required for recycling or activation of the fusion machinery. (biologists.org)
  • granules
  • However, suppression of D12 expression caused rapid appearance of lipofuscin granules, accompanied by apoptotic cell death without the apparent activation of the unfolded protein response. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Early in precursor development in the marrow, cells destined to be leukocytes of the granulocytic series-neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils-synthesize proteins and store them as cytoplasmic granules. (mhmedical.com)
  • molecules
  • Here we designate ZNRF proteins as a family of molecules by the identification of a second mammalian protein, ZNRF2, which is highly similar to ZNRF1 in the zinc finger-RING finger region. (jneurosci.org)
  • synthesis
  • Although BDNF can control transcription and protein synthesis, it still remains open to question whether BDNF regulates lipid biosynthesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • disassembly
  • Several partners were identified by yeast two-hybrid assay, among them α-SNAP which is involved in disassembly of vesicles during secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • motifs
  • Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A) is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. (frontiersin.org)
  • More recently, it has become clear that a large number of proteins containing RING finger motifs function as E3 ligases, with the RING finger motif itself serving to recruit specific E2s ( Pickart, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • lipid
  • Consistent with this notion, BDNF raised the level of the lipid raft marker protein caveolin-2 in rafts. (jneurosci.org)
  • zinc
  • Piccolo/Aczonin is a 500-kDa protein with zinc fingers, a PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1) domain, and two C 2 domains. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Protein generated from this cloned Bb gene was examined biochemically and found to have characteristics similar to that of botulinum, the toxin of Clostridium botulinum , a zinc endoproteinase. (samento.com.ec)
  • The toxin from Bb belongs to a family of toxic proteins known as 'zinc endoproteinases' or metalloproteases, and includes the toxin from the organism causing tetanus as well as those from many other well-known infectious diseases. (samento.com.ec)
  • 2 They all contain zinc and perform the same proteolytic function, namely, cleaving the chemical (covalent) bond between two specific amino acids in a particular protein found in nerve cells. (samento.com.ec)
  • pathways
  • The two sites are differentially phosphorylated by the stimulation of various kinases, suggesting a possible convergence of different pathways to modulate the function of the protein. (jneurosci.org)
  • neurons
  • A) Hippocampal neurons maintained in culture for 12 days were labeled with antibodies against cytoskeleton-associated proteins MAP2 (green), a marker of dendrites, and tau (red), a marker of axons. (biologists.org)
  • cysteine
  • Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous small protein ( Holmgren, 1985 ) with a pair of cysteine within a highly conserved active site. (rupress.org)
  • factor
  • MACF1 (microtubule actin crosslinking factor), also called ACF7 (actin crosslinking family 7) is a cytoskeletal linker protein that can associate with both actin filaments and microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the ubiquitination of p53 was reduced by overexpression of GS28 in cells, confirming that GS28 enhances the stability of the p53 protein. (biochemj.org)
  • neuronal
  • These data suggest that ZNRF proteins play a role in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal transmission and plasticity via their ubiquitin ligase activity. (jneurosci.org)