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  • nanometers
  • They drift in Earth's atmosphere from the stratosphere to the surface and range in size from a few nanometers-less than the width of the smallest viruses-to several several tens of micrometers-about the diameter of human hair. (nasa.gov)
  • The concentration of ultrafine particles less than 50 nanometers in diameter rose by one-third in the air of São Paulo, Brazil, when higher ethanol prices induced drivers to switch from ethanol to gasoline, according to a new study by a Northwestern University chemist, a National University of Singapore economist and two University of São Paulo physicists. (phys.org)
  • Typically, these tiny particles are about 20-100 nanometers in size. (childrenscancer.org)
  • aerosol
  • In 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines ejected more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide-a gas that reacts with other substances to produce sulfate aerosol-as high as 60 kilometers (37 miles) above the surface, creating particles in the stratosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • The interdisciplinary team conducted a regression analysis of traffic, consumer behavior, aerosol particle size and meteorological data from January 2011 through May 2011. (phys.org)
  • Geiger and Salvo were fortunate to have access to aerosol particle size distribution data from an unrelated research project overseen by Paulo Artaxo and Joel Brito at the University of São Paulo. (phys.org)
  • oxide
  • The present invention provides compositions comprising particles or agglomerates of one or more phosphorus oxide telomer or cotelomer ((co)telomer) of one or more unsaturated carboxylic acids or anhydrides having a mean average particle size of from 2 μm to 1 mm, preferably from 5 to 500 μm, preferably, comprising at least one carboxylic acid anhydride group. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A composition comprising particles or agglomerates of one or more phosphorus oxide telomer or cotelomer ((co)telomer) of one or more unsaturated carboxylic acids or anhydrides having a mean average particle size of from 2 μm to 1 mm. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • scatter
  • Small particle diagnostic apparatus employing illumination by coherent light of high polarization ratio, polarized separation of the reflected particle scatter optical signals and the ability to consider particles in plural locations of a diagnostic aperture aided by use of a vidicon or other position-sensitive. (google.ca)
  • Digital storage and analysis of the particle scatter data and computer control of the optical and analysis sequences are contemplated. (google.ca)
  • separation
  • XC series round rotary vibrating screen is a special screening equipment with the characteristics of international level, high precision and fine particle separation. (giorgioschultze.eu)
  • Sizing or classifying screens are designed to separate materials where the particle size of the material targeted for separation is close to the opening size of the screen deck, and where the screening process is meant to have a certain degree of accuracy. (giorgioschultze.eu)
  • light
  • An aerosol's effect on light depends primarily on the composition and color of the particles. (nasa.gov)
  • 11. The diagnostic apparatus of claim 2 further including polarization means located in the light output path of said laser intermediate to said laser and said particle stream for increasing the vertical to horizontal polarization ratio, in a plane parallel to the plane of said particle scattered light, of the illumination received at said particle stream. (google.ca)
  • When the sample is a solution, the beam of light is not visible, but when the sample is a colloid, the larger particles will reflect the light and make it visible. (reference.com)
  • The theoretically smallest spot at which a user can look is approximately 10 μm (limited by the wavelength of the light). (photonics.com)
  • Scintillators - When a high energy particle enters scintillating material, it causes atoms to emit light. (fnal.gov)
  • Cerenkov Detectors - Although light travels faster than anything else in vacuum, particles can travel faster than light in gases, liquids or solids. (fnal.gov)
  • If charged particles travel faster than light in such a medium, they give up some of their energy by emitting blue light. (fnal.gov)
  • In a transparent medium like water, ice, oil or gas, the blue light can escape and transmit the information that a fast charged particle has passed through. (fnal.gov)
  • One of these methods is to study light rays that are scattered by these particles. (indianexpress.com)
  • When the object in question is very small, of the scale of a few nanometres (a billionth of a metre) or less, most of the light incident on it goes along undisturbed, taking no note of the particle. (indianexpress.com)
  • This is because these particles are smaller than the wavelength of light and, therefore, do not interact strongly with light waves. (indianexpress.com)
  • Very occasionally though, not more than a few times in a billion, light waves do interact with the particle. (indianexpress.com)
  • Detecting these scattered light waves can provide some very important information about the particle light has interacted with. (indianexpress.com)
  • One of the things that scientists study is whether the scattered light has the same energy it had before hitting the particle, or whether there was a change in energy levels. (indianexpress.com)
  • interact
  • The core spins interact antiferromagnetically and the spins at the surface of the particle are disordered. (redalyc.org)
  • Calorimeters - Most particles interact with matter when they travel through it. (fnal.gov)
  • Hadronic calorimeters monitor the energy of particles containing quarks as they interact with atomic nuclei. (fnal.gov)
  • different
  • Different specialists describe the particles based on shape, size, and chemical composition. (nasa.gov)
  • We performed Monte Carlo simulations considering two different models for antiferromagnetic small particles with Ising spins. (redalyc.org)
  • for particle of different diameters. (giorgioschultze.eu)
  • The original version of The Little Particle That Could was illustrated by Noel Tuazon, who Jason has worked with on many different comic book projects. (kickstarter.com)
  • Most experiments at Fermilab use huge detectors that consist of intricate configurations of different detection devices, designed to collect the most possible information about the different types of particles created in a particle collision. (fnal.gov)
  • Bloodstream
  • Still in the experimental stage, the pill is packed with tiny magnetic particles, which can travel through a patient's bloodstream, search for malignant cells and report their findings to a sensor on a wearable device. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Furthermore, some particles may be transferred into the bloodstream and circulate throughout the human body, with disastrous consequences. (samitivejhospitals.com)
  • experiments
  • The basic particle that we are using in these experiments was developed many years ago as an artificial blood product," Hood says. (futurity.org)
  • boil
  • Filled with a superheated liquid, the bubble chamber creates a track of small bubbles when a charged particle crosses the chamber, locally bringing the liquid to boil. (fnal.gov)
  • atoms
  • Wire Chambers - When a charged particle traverses a gas-filled chamber, it ionizes the gas atoms along its path. (fnal.gov)
  • Search
  • The same division is also working on several other outlandish projects that have little to do with Google's main business of Internet search and advertising: Self-driving cars, a computer called Glass that looks like eyeglasses, Internet-beam balloons and contact lenses that can measure glucose in tears. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • susceptible
  • Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature. (innovations-report.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that diesel exhaust augmented allergic responses as well as airflow declines in those genetically susceptible, but we wondered if removing particles from the exhaust would lessen these effects," said senior study author Chris Carlsten, MD, MPH, professor, head of respiratory medicine and Canada Research Chair in Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease at the University of British Columbia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • data
  • The data reveal the arrival time of a particle as well as its track. (fnal.gov)
  • The particles would remain in the blood and report back continuously on what they find over time, said Andrew Conrad, head of life sciences at Google X, while a wearable sensor could track the particles by following their magnetic fields and collecting data on their movement through the body. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • proven
  • This previously unmeasured quantity has proven helpful in retrieving particle type information. (nasa.gov)
  • While interesting, the new study's findings will need to be duplicated, Starr noted, adding that even if proven, the effects seen in this study are small. (medscape.com)
  • type
  • Depending on the type of interaction, a particle can lose a fraction or all of its energy. (fnal.gov)
  • liquid
  • Even if the air looks clear, it's nearly certain that you'll inhale tens of millions of solid particles and liquid droplets. (nasa.gov)
  • A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that has particles held in a liquid or gas that are not dissolved, such as sand in water, oil in water and smoke in. (reference.com)
  • energy
  • Calorimeters measure the energy lost and determine the total energy of the incoming particle. (fnal.gov)
  • research
  • The research team also found when São Paulo drivers-some two million of them-switched back to ethanol because prices had gone down, the concentration of ultrafine particles also went down. (phys.org)
  • Some of the particles analyzed in this research have patterns that formed in Itokawa's parent object. (jaxa.jp)
  • Hisayoshi Yurimoto, a member of the research team and head of the Astromaterials Science Research Group at ISAS, says, "Generally speaking, one team is allotted only one or two particles for analysis. (jaxa.jp)
  • Air pollution from diesel engines may worsen allergy-induced lung impairment more when tiny particles are filtered from the exhaust than when they are not, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine . (medicalxpress.com)
  • human
  • Scientists have discovered a lot about how nanomaterials-which are full of particles far narrower than a human hair-can almost magically enhance building products. (bna.com)
  • With this knowledge, we hope more money and human resources will be invested in trying to understand and possibly monitor these ultrafine particles," said Salvo, who formerly was with Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management. (phys.org)