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  • Long
  • It has been suggested through multiple studies that testis, and neural tissues express the greatest amount of long non-coding RNAs of any tissue type. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • The Wahlestedt laboratory also has a strong interest in long non-coding RNA, which regulate gene expression. (scripps.edu)
  • Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that dsRNA can also activate gene expression, a mechanism that has been termed "small RNA-induced gene activation" or RNAa. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA silencing describes several mechanistically related pathways which are involved in controlling and regulating gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the varied and nuanced role of RNA silencing in the regulation of gene expression remains an ongoing scientific inquiry. (wikipedia.org)
  • While RNA silencing is an evolving class of mechanisms, a common theme is the fundamental relationship between small RNAs and gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the extent it is useful to craft a distinction between these related concepts, RNA silencing may be thought of as referring to the broader scheme of small RNA related controls involved in gene expression and the protection of the genome against mobile repetitive DNA sequences, retroelements, and transposons to the extent that these can induce mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression refers to the transcription of a gene but the RNA produced does not necessarily have to encode a protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project has substantially contributed to reveal that more than 70% of the human genome is transcribed, but only as few as the 2% of produced RNA is ultimately translated into protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • To study the action of LincIN , we identified LincIN -interacting protein partner(s) by RNA pull-down experiments followed with protein identification by mass spectrometry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Argonaute protein family plays a central role in RNA silencing processes, as essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA strand separation and incorporation into the Argonaute protein are guided by the strength of the hydrogen bond interaction at the 5'-ends of the RNA duplex, known as the asymmetry rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most extensively studied form of RNA editing involves the ADAR protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, some protein-encoding RNA transcripts have been shown to be subject to editing resulting in a difference in their protein's amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function where RNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Messenger RNA contained in microvesicles secreted from glioblastomal cells were shown to generate a functional protein in recipient (human brain microvascular endothelial) cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes that alter the epigenetic profile of a gene include production of activating or repressing protein complexes, usage of non-coding RNAs to guide proteins capable of modification, and the proliferation of a signal by having protein complexes attract either another protein complex or more DNA in order to modify other locations in the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the RNA-binding protein Hfq is implicated in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • sbi protein interferes with the host's innate immune response by binding Factor H, Complement component 3 and IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to work out the genetic code emerged from the convergence of three different areas of study--(i) new methods to generate synthetic RNA molecules of defined composition to serve as artificial mRNAs, (ii) development of in vitro translation systems that could be used to translate the synthetic mRNAs into protein, and (iii) experimental and theoretical genetic work which established that the code was written in three letter "words" (codons). (wikipedia.org)
  • and DGCR8, a double-stranded RNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) binds here, and when inhibited, BC200 RNA levels decrease, indicating that the 100 base pair region and TBP are critical players in the biosynthesis of BC200 RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • snRNAs
  • These "new sRNAs" could derive from pre-existent molecules with canonical functions such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which could define a group of RNAs that have a wide range of roles in gene regulation in addition to having the structural and/or functional roles for which they were originally characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • ribonucleic acid
  • Numerous key discoveries in biology have emerged from studies of RNA (ribonucleic acid), including seminal work in the fields of biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, molecular evolution and structural biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Extracellular RNA (also known as exRNA or exosomal RNA) describes RNA species present outside of the cells from which they were transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • It was long believed that only small molecules, such as water, hormone, ions, amino acids and photoassimilates, could be transported from source to sink tissues via the phloem system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested through multiple studies that testis, and neural tissues express the greatest amount of long non-coding RNAs of any tissue type. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a long non-coding RNA that is produced at one location silences the same or a different location on the same chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of this is a long non coding RNA from Hox gene C silences Hox gene D on a different chromosome, from a different chromosomal pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymine
  • Nucleoside composition analysis showed first that RNA contained similar nucleobases to DNA, with uracil instead of thymine, and that RNA contained a number of minor nucleobase components, e.g. small amounts of pseudouridine and dimethylguanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementarity is achieved by distinct interactions between nucleobases: adenine, thymine (uracil in RNA), guanine and cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • defines
  • Similar to the term "non-coding RNA", "extracellular RNA" defines a group of several types of RNAs whose functions are diverse, yet they share a common attribute which, in the case of exRNAs, is existence in an extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5' region of the RNA defines one domain and consists of Alu repeat elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • Consequently, the passenger strand is degraded, while the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • this is what enables the molecules to form the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Furthermore, conserved RNA structures may be determined from analysis of individuals that are phylogenetically related, and these regions may be used to support the reconstitution of their phylogenetic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA is more likely to form these kinds of structures due to base pair binding not seen in DNA, such as guanine binding with uracil. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery was previously considered as a possible mechanism for RNA secretion from the cell, but more recently research studying microRNA secretion in human embryonic kidney cells and Cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells identified neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme involved in ceramide biosynthesis, as a regulator of microRNA secretion levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • uracil
  • RNA is transcribed with only four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil), but these bases and attached sugars can be modified in numerous ways as the RNAs mature. (wikipedia.org)