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  • movements
  • People with PLMD often do not know the cause of their excessive daytime sleepiness and their limb movements are reported by a spouse or sleep partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLMD is diagnosed by first finding PLMS (periodic limb movements of sleep) on a PSG, then integrating that information with a detailed history from the patient and/or bed partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • measures
  • Clonazepam (Klonopin), in doses of 1 mg has been shown to improve objective and subjective measures of sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Less than 20 years ago, few scientists would have considered sleep an appropriate topic for a symposium concerning behavior and brain electrical activity. (springer.com)
  • Clearly sleep is an excellent area to study the relation between brain electrical activity and behavior. (springer.com)
  • Although sleep is a basic behavior in animals as well as humans, researchers still do not completely understand all of its functions in maintaining health. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • rats
  • Effect of hyperoxia during early stage of reperfusion after ST elevation myocardial infarction in rats : biochemical and cellular assessment of reperfusion injury. (ac.be)
  • Dr. Siapas and colleagues used sophisticated recording and computational techniques to examine the activity of neurons in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in sleeping rats. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Three layered feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network architecture is designed to classify sleep-wake stages in rats. (cogprints.org)
  • groggy
  • If you were to get awakened suddenly during this stage you would be groggy and confused and find it difficult to focus at first. (studymode.com)
  • Someone awakened from N3 sleep is extremely groggy and disoriented, Quan said. (livescience.com)
  • After being awoken, the person will generally feel quite groggy, and cognitive tests that have been administered after being awoken from the third stage show that for up to half an hour or so, and when compared to awakenings from the other stages, mental performance is moderately impaired. (sleepassociation.org)
  • The sleeper awakened from deep sleep will probably be groggy, confused, or disoriented. (holistic-online.com)
  • Brain
  • Sleep scoring is performed visually based on the following signals: (1) electrical activity of the brain - electroencephalogram (EEG), (2) electrical activity resulting from the movement of the eyes and eyelids - electrooculogram (EOG) and (3) muscle tone recorded under the chin (submental) - electromyogram (EMG). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clearly identifiable stages of brain activity during sleep (Dement, Aserinsky & Kleitman (1950's). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Deep, slow brain waves known as Delta Waves begin to emerge during this stage. (psychcentral.com)
  • REM sleep is characterized by eye movement, increased respiration rate and increased brain activity. (psychcentral.com)
  • REM sleep is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because, while the brain and other body systems become more active, your muscles become more relaxed, or paralyzed. (psychcentral.com)
  • During stage 3 your brain waves are slow delta waves although there may still be short bursts of faster of brain activity. (studymode.com)
  • Your brain only shows delta-wave activity, and it's difficult to wake someone up when they're in stage 4 of sleep. (studymode.com)
  • The stage of sleep a person is in also affects how active the brain and body are. (livescience.com)
  • Live Science asked Quan for a more detailed explanation of what happens in the body and brain during each of these four stages of sleep. (livescience.com)
  • Body temperature decreases, and brain waves, if observed on an electroencephalogram (EEG) in a sleep lab, would be seen to slow. (livescience.com)
  • During this stage, eye movement stops, heart rate slows, brain waves become slower and muscles relax even further. (livescience.com)
  • During REM sleep, a chemical called acetylcholine floods the brain and disrupts the connection between the hippocampus and neocortex, "placing both in an especially flexible state, where connections between neurons can be more easily formed, strengthened or weakened," Yong writes. (bedtimesmagazine.com)
  • It now appears that slow-wave sleep is a highly active state, and not a brain quiescence as previously believed. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Brain waves are slow (at the rate of 0.5 to 4 per second) and quite large (five times the size of waves in Stage 2). (holistic-online.com)
  • Though some investigators had studied brain electrical activity during sleep (Loomis, Harvey, and Hobart 1937), sleep was hardly conceived as a fruitful period for behavioral research. (springer.com)
  • Not only is this electrical activity of the sleeping brain a universal human phenomenon, but comparable activity is also present in nonhuman species. (springer.com)
  • Research on the sleeping brain has revealed some fascinating stage-dependent interactions between areas involved in formation and storage of long term memories. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The regulation and function of sleep is one of the biggest black boxes of today's brain science. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Neuroscience
  • In this concluding module of Medical Neuroscience, we will consider the neurobiology of sleep and the neurobiology of emotion, including addiction. (coursera.org)
  • recordings
  • 2. Gath I, Bar On E. Computerised method for scoring of polygraphic sleep recordings. (cogprints.org)
  • For this purpose, PSG recordings (ECG included) were obtained during the night's sleep (mean duration 7 hours) of 17 subjects (5 men) with ages between 26 and 67. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on these recordings, sleep experts performed sleep scoring for each subject. (biomedcentral.com)
  • researchers
  • Researchers from Cardiff University in Wales have suggested that both REM and non-REM sleep work together to make creative connections, according to a May 15 article by Ed Yong in The Atlantic . (bedtimesmagazine.com)
  • The researchers went on to speculate that the disconnection between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex during REM sleep may explain some of the persistent mysteries associated with REM sleep. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Researchers aren't sure why women seem to have more trouble sleeping than men, but they have noticed that women have the most difficulty when hormone levels change. (hawaiipacifichealth.org)
  • Subjects
  • The untreated OSA subjects had a mean (+/- SD) apnoea-hypopnoea index of 45.3 +/- 3.9 and a mean EDA index during sleep of 131.9 +/- 22.4 events per hour. (diva-portal.org)
  • rapid
  • an expert visually classifies consecutive 30-s epochs of polysomnographic (PSG) data (EEG, EOG and EMG) into wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep (stages N1-N3). (frontiersin.org)
  • Patients with higher EDA indices had higher systolic blood pressure in the evening and morning (P = 0.001 and 0.006) and lower rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage (P = 0.003). (diva-portal.org)
  • Women spent 31 min in sleep stage 1, 244 min in stage 2, 41 min in stage 3/4 and 76 min in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (diva-portal.org)
  • written by Professor Mowzoon, sleep is divided into 2 main types, which is non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM). (studymode.com)
  • Recent studies on the biological role of rapid eye movement sleep. (springer.com)
  • The classification accuracy rates were between 80 and 90% for the stages other than non-rapid-eye-movement stage 2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sleep is categorized into two types: Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • variability
  • The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of aging and cardiac denervation on heart rate variability during sleep. (ac.be)
  • A study of the dynamic interactions between sleep EEG and heart rate variability in healthy young men. (ac.be)