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  • forms
  • Thus, the results of this study show that even mild forms of obstructive sleep apnea carry an increased risk for the development of cardiac arrhythmia, and suggest that the risk for other diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease may also be increased. (drsamgirgis.com)
  • However, this operation can also cause sleep apnea if scar tissue forms and the airspace in the velopharynx is decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • We have recently discussed the finding that sleep disordered breathing is associated with increased risk of developing mild cognitive impairment and dementia. (drsamgirgis.com)
  • episodes
  • These episodes, called apneas (literally, "without breath"), each last long enough so one or more breaths are missed, and occur repeatedly throughout sleep. (valorebooks.com)
  • Sleep apnea is recognised as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes, or is suspected because of its effects on the body (sequelae). (valorebooks.com)
  • Every case of disturbances of respiration during sleep with apneic episodes longer than 10 s should always draw our attention. (springer.com)
  • The number of apnea and hypopnea episodes per hour (apnea-hypopnea index: AHI) was determined by standard polysomnography. (go.jp)
  • It is characterized by repetitive episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These episodes of decreased breathing, called "apneas" (literally, "without breath"), typically last 20 to 40 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a minor degree of OSA is considered to be within the bounds of normal sleep, and many individuals experience episodes of OSA at some point in life, a small percentage of people have chronic, severe OSA. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes an hour must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • daytime sleepiness
  • Symptoms may be present for years or even decades without identification, during which time the individual may become conditioned to the daytime sleepiness and fatigue associated with significant levels of sleep disturbance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common symptoms of OSA include unexplained daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and loud snoring (with periods of silence followed by gasps). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallmark symptom of OSA syndrome in adults is excessive daytime sleepiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media People with sleep apnea have problems with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impaired alertness, and vision problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep apnea may be diagnosed by the evaluation of symptoms, risk factors and observation, (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue) but the gold standard for diagnosis is a formal sleep study (polysomnography, or sometimes a reduced-channels home-based test). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main symptom of hypersomnia is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), or prolonged nighttime sleep, which has occurred for at least 3 months prior to diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obesity
  • The risk factors associated with steatosis are varied, and include diabetes mellitus, protein malnutrition, hypertension cell toxins, obesity, anoxia and sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrovesicular steatosis is the more common form of fatty degeneration and may be caused by oversupply of lipids due to obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), insulin resistance, or alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 70% of people with obesity, heart failure, type 2 diabetes, and drug-resistant hypertension have some form of sleep-disordered breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • Avoid alcohol and sleeping pills, which make the airway more likely to collapse during sleep and lengthen the times when you're not breathing properly. (webmd.com)
  • These devices may help keep the airway open during sleep. (webmd.com)
  • As the muscle tone of the body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, and the airway at the throat is composed of walls of soft tissue, which can collapse, it is not surprising that breathing can be obstructed during sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • sleepiness
  • Although this so-called "hypersomnolence" (excessive sleepiness) may also occur in children, it is not at all typical of young children with sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it disrupts normal sleep, those affected may experience sleepiness or feel tired during the day. (wikipedia.org)
  • people with mild
  • For some people with mild sleep apnea , dental appliances or oral "mandibular advancement" devices that prevent the tongue from blocking the throat or advance the lower jaw forward can be made. (webmd.com)
  • In OSA it appears to be effective to reduce but not eliminate apnea for people with mild to moderate OSA (Apnea-hypopnea index (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Common causes are tetracyclines, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, Reye's syndrome, and hepatitis C. Histologically, steatosis is physically apparent as lipid within membrane bound liposomes of parenchymal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awake bruxism is thought to have different causes from sleep bruxism, and is more common in females, whereas males and females are affected in equal proportions by sleep bruxism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathophysiology of Cheyne-Stokes breathing can be summarized as apnea leading to increased CO2 which causes excessive compensatory hyperventilation, in turn causing decreased CO2 which causes apnea, restarting the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, hypersomnia in these syndromes may also be associated with other secondary causes, so it is important to complete a full evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Dental damage may be similar in both types, but the symptoms of sleep bruxism tend to be worse on waking and improve during the course of the day, and the symptoms of awake bruxism may not be present at all on waking, and then worsen over the day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of sleep bruxism are usually most intense immediately after waking, and then slowly abate, and the symptoms of a grinding habit which occurs mainly while awake tend to worsen through the day, and may not be present on waking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some use the terms obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome to refer to OSA which is associated with symptoms during the daytime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals who generally sleep alone are often unaware of the condition, without a regular bed-partner to notice and make them aware of their symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, because there are many factors that could lead to some of the effects previously listed, some people are not aware that they have sleep apnea and are either misdiagnosed or ignore the symptoms altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • breath
  • When you have this condition, your breath can become very shallow or you may even stop breathing -- briefly -- while you sleep . (webmd.com)
  • hypertension
  • Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Skatrud J (2000) Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. (springer.com)
  • excessive
  • However, risk factors include: being male excessive weight an age above 40 large neck size (greater than 16-17 inches) enlarged tonsils or tongue small jaw bone gastroesophageal reflux allergies sinus problems a family history of sleep apnea deviated septum Alcohol, sedatives and tranquilizers may also promote sleep apnea by relaxing throat muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • Lifestyle changes may include avoiding alcohol, losing weight, stopping smoking, and sleeping on one's side. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the reason snorers are advised to lose weight (to stop fat from pressing on the throat), stop smoking (smoking weakens and clogs the throat), avoid alcohol and sedative medications before bedtime (they relax the throat and tongue muscles, which in turn narrow the airways) and sleep on their side (to prevent the tongue from blocking the throat). (wikipedia.org)
  • repetitive
  • Thus Cheyne-Stokes respiration can be maintained over periods of many minutes or hours with a repetitive pattern of apneas and hyperpneas. (wikipedia.org)
  • throat
  • Snoring can be attributed to one or more of the following: Throat weakness, causing the throat to close during sleep. (wikipedia.org)