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  • immunosuppression
  • No treatment has been shown to influence the outcome or significantly affect the skin score, though many forms of immunosuppression have been tried. (unipv.it)
  • tumors
  • These tumors develop several years after transplantation with rising incidence over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumor cells from lungs, for instance, would be harvested from a deceased mouse and transplanted into another mouse's skin, and that mouse, upon death, would have its resultant lung tumors transplanted to the next mouse, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over time, cells in that line injected into the skin would almost always become lung tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • This article aims to provide an up-to-date review of the research development and clinical applications of cell therapies in burn wound healing and skin regeneration. (deepdyve.com)
  • decades, cell-based therapies have emerged as popular Globally, severe burns lead to about 180,000 deaths an- choices in conjunction with standard skin grafting tech- nually and millions of patients suffering from non-fatal niques for burn wound healing and regeneration of skin burns experiencing substantial and life-long physical and structure and functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • up-to-date review of the research development and clin- Severe burn wound is characterised by the destruction ical applications of cell therapies in severe burn wound of skin structures, functions and more importantly the healing. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunology
  • In 1974, Summerlin was working under immunologist Robert A. Good at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, conducting research in transplantation immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of research deal with the development of a strategy utilizing this phenomenon in transplantation immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Researchers are also working on using genetically modified skin stem cells to treat skin diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The mouse at the center of the controversy involved transplantation between two genetically similar strains, and hence had a conventional explanation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1962 edition of the Handbook of Genetically Standardized Jax Mice, the cells were described thus: "Gross: soft gray tissue, frequently hemorrhagic. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • Chronic phototoxicity and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in children and adults during treatment with voriconazole. (springer.com)
  • left untreated, they may turn into a type of cancer called Squamous cell skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated lesions have up to a 20% risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, so treatment by a dermatologist is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other dermatologic problems include squamous-cell carcinoma/dysplasia (vulvar, anal, and facial). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigment
  • These cells, called retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), are often the first to die off in age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases, which in turn leads to loss of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • hair follicles
  • Researchers have identified stem cells responsible for making the epidermal layer, hair follicles and skin pigments. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Moreover, if the skin is severely damaged such as it is following burns, the transplanted skin will lack sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous (oil) glands. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Researchers are currently working to develop methods to grow skin that contains more of the normal functional components, such as sebaceous glands and hair follicles. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Recently, great progress has been made on growing skin that contains components such as hair follicles and glands. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The dermis lies underneath the epidermis and contains skin appendages: hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands and sweat glands. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Hair follicle stem cells ensure constant renewal of the hair follicles. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Hair follicle stem cells are found throughout the hair follicles. (eurostemcell.org)
  • acute
  • Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • Hela cells and human fibroblast-derived iPS cells showed high telomerase activity while Muse was at nearly the same level as that in somatic cells such as fibroblasts (these data are shown without running control for the telomerase activity, the comparison is not scientific thought). (wikipedia.org)
  • keratinocytes
  • However, the era of cultured cell transient-amplifying keratinocytes and migrating to- therapy for burn injuries was only opened up after wards skin surface to form multiple keratinocytes Rheinwald and Green revolutionised the cell culture layers . (deepdyve.com)
  • KSC cultivation of strains of human keratinocytes from a skin populations with more active, proliferative and regen- biopsy . (deepdyve.com)
  • laboratory and cultured epithelia autografts (CEAs) were The keratinocytes can be easily isolated and ex- successfully transplanted in severe burns for wound panded in numbers under in vitro cell culture condi- healing . (deepdyve.com)
  • Keratinocytes produce various bio-factors and worldwide research activities on cell therapy in burn re- cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, search. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is made up of several layers of cells called keratinocytes. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The epidermis contains layers of cells called keratinocytes. (eurostemcell.org)
  • The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata or layers (beginning with the outermost layer): Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum (only in palms and soles) Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum germinativum (also called the stratum basale) Keratinocytes in the stratum basale proliferate through mitosis and the daughter cells move up the strata changing shape and composition as they undergo multiple stages of cell differentiation to eventually become anucleated. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that process, keratinocytes will become highly organized, forming cellular junctions (desmosomes) between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and provide mechanical strength to the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • It has been demonstrated that normal unmanipulated mice contain CD25 + CD4 + cells that are able to prevent the development of autoimmune disease ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ), so-called naturally occurring autoreactive CD25 + CD4 + Treg. (jimmunol.org)
  • Two labs in China have independently succeeded in transforming skin cells into neurons using only a cocktail of chemicals, with one group using human cells from healthy individuals and Alzheimer's patients, and the other group using cells from mice. (phys.org)
  • Unlike ES and iPS cells, transplanted Muse cells in testes of immunodeficient mice -a commonly used experiment to test the tumorigenicity of stem cells- have not been reported to form teratomas, even after six months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Fidler stained B16s, having cultured them in vitro, with 125I-5-iodo-2′-deoxyuridine for tracking, and implanted the cells into C57BL/6J mice, the common host, sacrificed the mice at different times, and measured the cells in the blood and in different organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • Over past decades, advances in stem cells and regenerative medicine have offered exciting opportunities of developing cell-based alternatives and demonstrated the potential and feasibility of various stem cells for burn wound healing. (deepdyve.com)
  • In 2007, the Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy Unit (Unità di Medicina Rigenerativa e Terapie Cellulari), termed the Cell Factory, was opened at ISMETT with the aim to initiate a program of regenerative medicine that researches the reparation of damaged organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In recent years, cell therapy has become a new strategy for tissue repair and regeneration. (omicsonline.org)
  • Skin is a very important tissue in our bodies. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Replenish new functional cells through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muse cells are shown to home into the damage site and spontaneously differentiate into tissue-compatible cells according to the microenvironment to contribute to tissue regeneration when infused into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient's own stored stem cells are then transfused into his/her bloodstream, where they replace destroyed tissue and resume the patient's normal blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Possible mechanisms of recovery include: Generation of heart muscle cells Stimulation of growth of new blood vessels to repopulate damaged heart tissue Secretion of growth factors Assistance via some other mechanism It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmune
  • The concept that development of Treg with high affinity for self-Ag develop in parallel with the thymic ontogeny of non-Treg populations is an attractive one because it provides a mechanism for controlling the activity of T cell populations with high affinity for self-Ag that, unchecked, may have the potential to cause autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • cytokines
  • Many subsets of iTregs play a part in this proces, but CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs play a key role, because they have the ability to convert conventional T cells into iTregs directly by secretion of the suppressive cytokines TGF-β, IL-10 or IL-35, or indirectly via dendritic cells (DCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basement membrane controls the traffic of the cells and molecules between the dermis and epidermis but also serves, through the binding of a variety of cytokines and growth factors, as a reservoir for their controlled release during physiological remodeling or repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Determination is followed by differentiation, the actual changes in biochemistry, structure, and function that result in specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells The G-CSF-receptor is present on precursor cells in the bone marrow, and, in response to stimulation by G-CSF, initiates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral
  • Peripheral blood stem cell mobilisation was performed with cyclophosphamide or granulocyte colony stimulating factor, alone or in combination. (unipv.it)
  • Immune tolerance Central tolerance Peripheral tolerance regulatory T cells Immune response Immune tolerance in pregnancy Cobbold, S. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune Cells
  • The biggest weakness in Burnet's theory was that he had no explanation for how the body selected for immune cells that only identified non-self. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-CSF is produced by endothelium, macrophages, and a number of other immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • This agent inhibits tumor cell growth through at least 3 different mechanisms that ultimately disrupt DNA synthesis or cellular viability. (medscape.com)
  • Metastasis, quantitative analysis of distribution and fate of tumor cell emboli labelled with ₁25 1UdR. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • This new method provides a potentially safe source of patient-specific stem cells for translation into the clinic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient reports improved vision in the eye treated with the cells, which The Guardian said "represents a huge scientific achievement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In FUT, a strip of skin containing many follicular units is extracted from the patient and dissected under a stereoscopic microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candidates for HSCTs include pediatric cases where the patient has an inborn defect such as severe combined immunodeficiency or congenital neutropenia with defective stem cells, and also children or adults with aplastic anemia who have lost their stem cells after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Skin-derived CEC-like cells have long-term therapeutic effect in monkey corneal endothelial dysfunction model. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results indicate that the current method for pre-culture of BMSCs does not bring therapeutic benefits in skin flap protection. (omicsonline.org)
  • spinal cord i
  • This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle degeneration, skin injury, stroke and spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell treat
  • The largest challenge for developing skin stem cell treatments is creating methods that are readily available and affordable for patients. (eurostemcell.org)
  • Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermis contains
  • The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Often, large areas of sun-exposed skin are diagnosed with a continuum of multiple clinically visible AKs of different sizes and severities, typically accompanied by subclinical lesions that become apparent only in biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • They usually form when skin gets damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or indoor tanning beds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation induces hair loss through damage to hair follicle stem cell progenitors and alteration of keratin expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • It has been demonstrated that these cells undergo positive selection within the thymus and appear to enter the periphery as committed CD25 + CD4 + Treg. (jimmunol.org)
  • malignancies
  • The percentage of aberrant cells was not different between patients with and without secondary malignancies in this study group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although this agent is one of the most successful in the treatment of cancer, it produces major toxicities to normal cells and organs at the concentrations necessary for effective treatment of malignancies. (medscape.com)