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  • functional
  • The main goal was to retard the atrophy and replace diseased muscle with new healthy and functional muscle fibers by using myogenic stem cells ( Brunelli and Rovere-Querini, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, the distribution of telocytes in different stem cell niches will be explored, highlighting the intimate relationship between the two types of cells and their possible functional relationship. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, hPSC-derived motor neurons were able to form neuromuscular junctions with human myotubes in vitro and induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering, as detected by Alexa 555-conjugated α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX), suggesting that these hPSC-derived motor neurons formed functional contacts with skeletal muscles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Muscle stem cells must maintain a spectrum of functional abilities to be prepared for the overall changes that occur from injuries, diseases and aging," says Sacco. (newswise.com)
  • Supplementation of systemic GDF11 levels, which normally decline with age, by heterochronic parabiosis or systemic delivery of recombinant protein, reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). (nih.gov)
  • Increased GDF11 levels in aged mice also improved muscle structural and functional features and increased strength and endurance exercise capacity. (nih.gov)
  • Others have proposed that transient cell retention may be sufficient to promote functional effects, eg, by release of paracrine mediators. (ahajournals.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Applied StemCell's cDNA can be used in gene expression and cloning studies, analysis of mRNA alternative splicing, gene mutation analysis and other molecular biology fields. (appliedstemcell.com)
  • It is a mode of cell death defined by characteristic morphological, biochemical and molecular changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This covalent modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and prevents cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • New perspectives on PKCtheta, a member of the novel subfamily of protein kinase C". Stem Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rac1, also known as Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, is a protein found in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of GLUT4 translocation to glucose uptake, cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, antimicrobial cytotoxicity, and the activation of protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating or gain-of-function mutations of Rac1 are shown to play active roles in promoting mesenchymal-type of cell movement assisted by NEDD9 and DOCK3 protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rac1 protein is also necessary for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle activated by exercise and muscle stretching Activating mutations in Rac1 have been recently discovered in large-scale genomic studies involving melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • NDRG4 a member of the N-myc downregulated gene family belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily which encodes a cytoplasmic protein responsible for cell cycle progression and survival in primary astrocytes and may be involved in regulation of mitogenic signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in humans), a cyclin-dependent kinase, on a tyrosine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that cell division may be regulated in part by dilution of Wee1 protein in cells as they grow larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and inhibits Wee1 in vitro) are localized to a band of cortical nodes in the middle of interphase cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell polarity protein kinase Pom1, a member of the dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family of kinases, localizes to cell ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Mackey AL & Kjaer M The breaking and making of healthy adult human skeletal muscle in vivo. (abcam.com)
  • Placental Stem Villus Arterial Remodeling Associated with Reduced Hydrogen Sulfide Synthesis Contributes to Human Fetal Growth Restriction. (abcam.com)
  • Is human cloning possible? (probe.org)
  • Human cloning is not possible at this time. (probe.org)
  • Do You Have More Information on Human Cloning? (probe.org)
  • I am looking to inform my class on the steps to cloning a human and also the most recent experiments done in this field of work. (probe.org)
  • Below is the recent announcement by the first group to publicly say they are actively going to seek to clone a human. (probe.org)
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are being applied in regenerative medicine and for the in vitro modeling of human intractable disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, neural cells derived from disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) established from patients with neurological disorders have been used as in vitro disease models to recapitulate in vivo pathogenesis because neural cells cannot be usually obtained from patients themselves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even later, at the blastocyst stage, only 20-25% of human embryos consist of cells with a normal karyotype. (iliveok.com)
  • Establishment, Maintenance, and Cloning of Human Primary Cell Strains. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Culture of Human Brain Tumors on an Extracellular Matrix Derived from Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells and Cultured Human Glioma Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Human Thyroid Epithelial Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Transfection and Transformation of Human Thyroid Epithelial Cells. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The DSHB is a National Resource established by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to bank and distribute at cost hybridomas and cell products to the general scientific community. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is an ethical consensus in the United States not to allow preimplantation human embryos to develop beyond 80 to 100 cells, about the size of a pinhead. (innovations-report.com)
  • Transgenic mice generated to carry cloned oncogenes and knockout mice lacking tumor suppressing genes have provided good models for human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of telomeres and telomerase in cell aging and cancer was established by scientists at biotechnology company Geron with the cloning of the RNA and catalytic components of human telomerase and the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for telomerase activity called the TRAP assay, which surveys telomerase activity in multiple types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cells are much larger than animal cells, and protists such as Paramecium can be 330 μm long, while a typical human cell might be 10 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This isoform is expressed exclusively in heart muscle during human and mouse development, and is distinct from those expressed in slow skeletal muscle (MYBPC1) and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloning of the human MYBPC3 cDNA and localization of the gene on human chromosome 11p11.2 has assisted the structure and function of cMyBP-C. MYBPC3 became therefore the "best" candidate gene for the CMH4 locus for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that was initially mapped by the group of Schwartz. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In particular, neural cells derived from disease-specific hiPSCs from patients with neurological disorders have been especially useful as in vitro disease models recapitulating in vivo pathogenesis, as cells in the nervous system cannot be usually obtained from patients themselves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unexpectedly, Sgcb -null cardiac progenitors spontaneously differentiated into skeletal muscle fibers both in vitro and when transplanted into regenerating muscles or infarcted hearts. (rupress.org)
  • stromal
  • The beneficial effect was achieved via modulation of stromal cells expressing cyclooxygenase 2 in the lamina propria, as shown by survival studies using selective and non-selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors. (bmj.com)
  • Indian Hedgehog Suppresses a Stromal Cell-Driven Intestinal Immune Response. (abcam.com)
  • genetic
  • I would like to know as much information as you have on genetic cloning, so that I can gain an understanding of it and how it works. (probe.org)
  • Cloning produces a nearly identical genetic copy of the original by taking the nucleus of a cell from an organism and placing inside an egg cell of the same species. (probe.org)
  • Currently only bulls are cloned to make more copies of good genetic stock for normal animal husbandry purposes. (probe.org)
  • This finding reveals an added level of complexity in the mechanism of the fate choice of mesoderm progenitors and suggests that using endogenous cardiac stem cells therapeutically will require specially tailored procedures for certain genetic diseases. (rupress.org)
  • In the study, researchers obtained cow oocytes (donor eggs from cow ovaries) and removed and discarded the nuclei, which contain the cells genetic material, leaving behind just the shell. (innovations-report.com)
  • They would need some genetic marker that would let them tell the cloned cells apart from the native cells of the cow. (futurepundit.com)
  • Programmed cell death is a distinct genetic and biochemical pathway essential to metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1981 the laboratories of Frank Ruddle from Yale University, Frank Costantini and Elizabeth Lacy from Oxford, and Ralph Brinster and Richard Palmiter in collaboration from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Washington injected purified DNA into a single-cell mouse embryo utilizing techniques developed by Brinster in the 1960s and 1970s, showing transmission of the genetic material to subsequent generations for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform expressed in cardiac muscle
  • The cMyBP-C isoform expressed in cardiac muscle differs from those expressed in slow and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC1 and MYBPC2, respectively) by three features: (1) an additional immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain on the N-terminus, (2) a linker region between the second and third Ig domains, and (3) an additional loop in the sixth Ig domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Mutations in the Sgcb gene cause LMD2E (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E), often characterized by severe cardiomyopathy and mild muscle wasting. (rupress.org)
  • These features are key factors for successful stem cell transplantations that are used in cancer patients and in gene therapy protocols. (rupress.org)
  • The second approach, pioneered by Oliver Smithies and Mario Capecchi, involves modifying embryonic stem cells with a DNA construct containing DNA sequences homologous to the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polymorphism in the promoter region of the NDFUB6 gene resulting in an adenine to guanine shift at rs629566 was shown to create a DNA methylation site that is associated with a decline in NDUFB6 expression in muscle of aging patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Due to these findings, other aspects were deeply investigated to increase the survival of injected stem cells into pathological muscle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusions We demonstrated here for the first time that AFS cells injected in an established model of NEC improve survival, clinical status, gut structure and function. (bmj.com)
  • For example, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), when transplanted into the (murine) myocardium, may transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and blood vessels, thereby improving heart function and survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Apoptosis has proven to be tightly interwoven with other essential cell pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • miR-138 has been used as an example of the post-transcriptional regulation of miRNA, due to the finding that while the precursor is expressed ubiquitously, the mature product is found only in specific cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • To date, among the miRNAs known to regulate skeletal myogenesis, only miR669a and miR669q directly inhibit the MyoD 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and, consequently, skeletal myogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • For instance, within cells, VDAC3 predominantly localizes to the centrosome and recruits Mps1 to regulate centriole assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • pericytes
  • Culture media-based selection of endothelial cells, pericytes, and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes from the young mouse vestibular system. (abcam.com)
  • clonal
  • Here we determine the degree of hematopoietic migration at a clonal level by transplanting individual young and aged mouse HSCs labeled with barcoded viral vector, followed by assessing the skeletal distribution of hundreds of HSC clones. (rupress.org)
  • genetically
  • Cloning to preserve endangered species is counter-productive since cloning produces genetically identical organisms. (probe.org)
  • Some scientists believe that all clones are genetically handicapped in some way but some are able to survive, but marginally. (probe.org)
  • In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created the first genetically modified animal by inserting a DNA virus into an early-stage mouse embryo and showing that the inserted genes were present in every cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • Some researchers favor stable stem cell engraftment by fusion or transdifferentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular cell lineages as likely explanations for these beneficial effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • subfamily
  • Along with other subfamily of Rac and Rho proteins, they exert an important regulatory role specifically in cell motility and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • It has been shown that miR-181 is preferentially expressed in the B-lymphoid cells of mouse bone marrow, but also in the retina and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Sacco's research team used a technology called in vivo multi lineage tracing to follow the self-renewal capacity and range of progeny produced by individual stem cells. (newswise.com)
  • Lymphocytes
  • In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly especially in male sperm cells[citation needed] but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the great majority of cases somatic cells do not express telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • High-intensity eccentric training ameliorates muscle wasting in colon 26 tumor-bearing mice. (abcam.com)
  • Clonogenic Assays for Hematopoietic and Tumor Cells Using Agar-Containing Capillaries. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Such abnormal cell motility may result in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) - a driving mechanism for tumor metastasis as well as drug-resistant tumor relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that the Tcl1 oncogene is a target of miR-181a in an inhibition relation (downregulated) that would result in an action on the tumor cell growth process. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • While they normally produce digestive fluids for the stomach, they can revert into stem cells to make temporary repairs to stomach injuries, such as a cut or damage from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The inhibition of Hippo/Yap signaling pathway is required for magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate to ameliorate hepatic stellate cell inflammation and activation. (abcam.com)
  • Coenzyme Q10 inhibits the activation of pancreatic stellate cells through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. (abcam.com)
  • GDF11 activates the TGF-β pathway in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and suppresses the phosphorylation of Forkhead (FOX proteins) transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproducible
  • In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • NM-IIB has many properties that are similar to those of smooth muscle myosins, such as the permissive nature of phosphorylation of the 20 kDa regulatory light chain for contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various functions of NM-IIB require the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain MLC20, including cell migration and cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells have reached sufficient size during G2, the phosphatase Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphorylation, and thus activates Cdc2 to allow mitotic entry. (wikipedia.org)