Loading...
  • tissue
  • 10) The muscle tissue that normally exhibits voluntary contractions is __________ muscle. (scribd.com)
  • Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC) as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues' spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation. (hindawi.com)
  • Skeletal muscle is a very complex tissue, and ex vivo engineered tissues gained more and more importance [ 3 - 7 ] because of their potential to be used for injured and infarcted patients. (hindawi.com)
  • To monitor engineered muscle tissue growth we recently proposed [ 8 ] the application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) in combination with standard force measurement. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in muscle T2 and tissue damage after downhill running in mdx mice," Muscle and Nerve , vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 878-886, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed that mRNA and protein for gp91 phox , a NADPH oxidase subunit, in skeletal muscle tissue were upregulated in hypertensive rats. (physiology.org)
  • Arteries conduct blood away from the heart and have proportionately more smooth muscle and elastic tissue than veins of comparable size. (automobile-freart.com)
  • Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. (automobile-freart.com)
  • Repeated static contractions (RSC) induce large fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension and increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (diva-portal.org)
  • Diagram of muscle tissue. (pinterest.de)
  • glucose transport
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In vivo gene injection and electroporation were used to overexpress wild-type and several mutant TBC1D1 proteins in mouse tibialis anterior muscles, and glucose transport was measured in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, expression of the TBC1D1 4P mutant decreased contraction-stimulated glucose transport, an effect prevented by concomitant disruption of TBC1D1 Rab-GAP activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There was no effect of the R125W mutation on contraction-stimulated glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin and exercise are the most physiologically relevant stimulators of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and in patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin- but not exercise-stimulated glucose transport can be severely impaired ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin, exercise, and the AMPK activator 5′-aminoimidazole-4-carboxymide-1-β- d -ribofuranoside (AICAR) all cause phosphorylation of AS160 on PAS sites in skeletal muscle ( 5 , 7 , 10 ), and there is good evidence that phosphorylation of these sites inhibits AS160 activity, leading to trafficking of GLUT4 vesicles to the cell surface and glucose transport ( 8 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, ablation of AS160 phosphorylation at PAS sites only partially inhibits insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose transport ( 8 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a preliminary report suggests that whole-body knockout of AS160 does not result in a significant increase in glucose transport in muscle ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that there may be one or more additional Rab-GAP proteins expressed in skeletal muscle that also function to regulate glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated if a recently described potent AMPK activator called 991, in combination with the commonly used activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or contraction, further enhances AMPK activity and glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle ex vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Given that the γ3-subunit is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in contraction-induced glucose transport, we measured the activity of AMPKγ3 as well as ubiquitously expressed γ1-containing complexes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Strikingly, dual treatment with 991 and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or 991 and contraction profoundly enhanced AMPKγ1/γ3 complex activation and glucose transport compared with any of the single treatments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cleland, Perry J F 1990 , 'Contraction-induced glucose transport into skeletal muscle : the involvement of protein kinase C', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. (edu.au)
  • The electrical stimulation of isolated soleus muscle in vitro increased the rate of glucose transport, but this required 20 min to reach maximum. (edu.au)
  • The response to both insulin and contraction in terms of glucose transport was assessed. (edu.au)
  • Thus, it is concluded that treatment of isolated soleus muscle with TPA gives rise to a marked loss of contraction-induced glucose transport. (edu.au)
  • hindlimb
  • Electrically induced 30-s hindlimb muscle contraction in decerebrate rats with hypertension evoked larger renal sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses [+1,173 ± 212 arbitrary units (AU) and +35 ± 5 mmHg, n = compared with sham normotensive rats (+419 ± 103 AU and +13 ± 2 mmHg, n = 11). (physiology.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Contraction-mediated lipolysis increases the association of lipid droplets and mitochondria, indicating an important role in the passage of fatty acids from lipid droplets to mitochondria in skeletal muscle. (brocku.ca)
  • PLIN3 and PLIN5 are of particular interest to the lipid droplet-mitochondria interaction because PLIN3 is able to move about within cells and PLIN5 associates with skeletal muscle mitochondria. (brocku.ca)
  • Mitochondria were isolated from red gastrocnemius muscle by differential centrifugation and proteins were detected by western blotting. (brocku.ca)
  • PLIN3 and PLIN5 may be working together on the lipid droplet and mitochondria during contraction-induced lipolysis. (brocku.ca)
  • translocation
  • Recent studies have identified two molecules, the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160/TBC1D4) and its paralog, TBC1D1, as potential molecular links among multiple signaling pathways converging on GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle ( 5 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Electrical-induced contraction of the gastrocnemius' - plantaris-soleus muscle group resulted in a time-dependent translocation of PKc and a 2-fold increase in the concentration of both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. (edu.au)
  • Thus, it is concluded that electrical-induced muscle contraction increased the production of diacylglycerol and the translocation of PKc. (edu.au)
  • voluntary
  • To examine the role of dietary nitrates in regulating force generation under normal physiological conditions, we undertook an extended nitrate supplementation regime and determined force output and energy cost with a repeated isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) protocol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Each bout of RSC (target torque 66% of maximal voluntary contraction torque, MVC) was maintained to fatigue. (diva-portal.org)
  • glycogen
  • The decreases in phosphocreatine (approximately 50%), and increases in glucose 6-phosphate (approximately 3-fold) and lactate (approximately 8-fold) were similar during contraction and occlusion, indicating similar degrees of anaerobic ATP turnover and glycogen breakdown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5% of the basal muscle glycogen content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ischemia
  • In humans with hypertension, the elevation in muscle sympathetic nerve activity seen during postexercise ischemia, a maneuver that selectively excites chemically sensitive muscle afferents, was higher than that in normotensive subjects ( 10 ). (physiology.org)
  • sympathetic
  • These rodent and human studies suggest that the skeletal muscle contraction-mediated reflex sympathetic nerve response is exaggerated in hypertension, thereby contributing to the excess sympathoexcitation and blood pressure elevation seen during exercise in this pathological condition. (physiology.org)
  • Stimulation of renal sympathetic activity by static contraction: evidence for mechanoreceptor-induced reflexes from skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • To provide this evidence, we recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity in chloralose-anesthetized cats while contracting the triceps surae muscles. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that, in anesthetized animal preparations, mechanoreceptors with group III afferents contribute to the reflex stimulation of renal sympathetic outflow evoked by muscular contraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nerve
  • We found that static contraction tripled renal nerve activity within three seconds of its onset, an increase that was abolished by cutting the L6 and S2 dorsal roots. (ahajournals.org)
  • On average, the contraction-induced increase in renal nerve activity was observed 0.8 +/- 0.1 seconds after the onset of this maneuver. (ahajournals.org)
  • supplementation
  • Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances aged skeletal muscle adaptability to repeated exposures of stretch-shortening contractions. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the ability of muscle to perform positive work and negative work was not statistically different with the type of supplementation. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary supplementation of antioxidants appears to enhance the ability of aged skeletal muscle to adapt to repeated SSC exposures, which have previously caused mal-adaptation in aged skeletal muscle. (cdc.gov)
  • No significant reduction in force output was determined for BR relative to PL for the peak contraction, the mean or the end force, and no significant time effect was found over the course of the supplementation period. (biomedsearch.com)