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  • genetic
  • The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex signal transduction pathway that is required for preserving the genetic information encoded by DNA and for ensuring its accurate transmission through generations. (frontiersin.org)
  • cellular
  • We highlight evidence gained into (i) which molecular and cellular pathways of DDR activate immune signaling, (ii) how DNA damage drives chronic inflammation, and (iii) how chronic inflammation causes DNA damage and pathology in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • CRISPR
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the silencing of invading nucleic acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria and archaea have evolved RNA-mediated adaptive defense systems called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) that protect organisms from invading viruses and plasmids ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In the expression and interference phases, transcription of the repeat-spacer element into precursor CRISPR RNA (pre-crRNA) molecules followed by enzymatic cleavage yields the short crRNAs that can pair with complementary protospacer sequences of invading viral or plasmid targets ( 4 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, the recent advent of CRISPR, an RNA-guided gene-editing technology, as well as new strides in the delivery of messenger RNA transcribed in vitro, have triggered a major expansion of the RNA-therapeutics field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR systems in eubacteria and archaea use small RNAs and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) proteins to target and cleave invading foreign DNAs ( 4 ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mechanism of substrate selection by a highly specific CRISPR endoribonuclease. (viaf.org)
  • These features broaden the utility of using CRISPR-Cas systems for specific gene regulation and therapeutic applications. (cellsignal.com)
  • nucleotide
  • An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of polynucleotide chains and phosphate-deoxyribose bonds within (endonuclease) or at the end (exonuclease) of a nucleotide sequence (nucleic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This technique has already been used in P. falciparum for gene knock out, generating single-nucleotide substitutions and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter line with disruption of inserted sites [ 17 , 19 , 21 ], but the adaption of this system for adding tags to P. falciparum genes has not been reported yet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Makes the 3incision in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER). (genecards.org)
  • Note that the complete sequence of our molecular clones may differ from the sequence published for this corresponding reference, e.g., by representing an alternative RNA splicing form or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). (origene.com)
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA polymerase accessory factor that is required for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle and for resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. (sdbonline.org)
  • Helicobacter Pylori introduces double-stranded DNA breaks by the nucleotide excision repair endonucleases XPF and XPG, which, together with RelA, are recruited to chromatin in a highly coordinated, type IV secretion system-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • However, the use of this technique in P. falciparum is still limited to gene knockout, site-specific mutation and generation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter line with disruption of inserted sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a single-strand specific DNA endonuclease that makes the 3' incision in DNA excision repair following UV-induced damage. (genecards.org)
  • ERCC5 (ERCC Excision Repair 5, Endonuclease) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This database is built by NCBI, and, provides only a single record for each gene/transcript. (origene.com)
  • The mRNA and DNA precursors of proteins, however, are promising therapeutically in that they can be specifically targeted via Watson-Crick base pairing and, in the case of gene editing, which aims to permanently change the host's DNA, represent an avenue to cure a genetic defect as opposed to just treating it. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the past few decades, RNA drugs have emerged as candidates to address diseases at the gene and RNA levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of advances in RNA and RNA-protein therapy, with an emphasis on materials that have been developed for RNA delivery and applications of RNA-based drugs for the modulation of gene/protein expression and gene editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations
  • Error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair then generates mutations. (pnas.org)
  • FEN-1 mutations altering PCNA binding should reduce activity during replication, likely causing DNA repeat expansions as seen in some cancers and genetic diseases (Hosfield, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to remove the majority of all DNA lesions, but if these mechanisms are not sufficiently efficient, it will lead to DNA damage accumulation, which is likely to result in mutations and cellular dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging [ 1 ] postulates that organisms age due to the accumulation of DNA damage and mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, leading to mitochondrial and eventually cellular dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • nucleic acid
  • As such, the nucleic acid delivery field has centered on the design of delivery methods and materials that will transport RNA drugs to the site of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large amounts of contaminating DNA can be detected using OD measurement (producing a 260/280 nm ratio far below the optimum value of 2), or via agarose gel electrophoresis, where very high molecular weight nucleic acid bandings are obtained. (roche.com)
  • molecular
  • Widely used in molecular biology to map the position of mRNA to its DNA, and also used to remove single-stranded tails from DNA fragments, to produce blunt ends to open up hairpin-loop structures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The PCR fragments in lanes 5 and 6 indicated by arrows, are of higher molecular weight based on the included intron sequence, and therefore indicative of contamination of the RNA template with genomic DNA. (roche.com)
  • To clarify the molecular basis of FEN-1 specificity and PCNA activation, structures of FEN-1:DNA and PCNA:FEN-1-peptide complexes, along with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and mutational results are reported. (sdbonline.org)
  • replication
  • Recently, RNase H(35), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of mammalian RNase HI, was identified and its possible role in DNA replication was proposed (P. Frank, C. Braunshofer-Reiter, and U. Wintersberger, FEBS Lett. (asm.org)
  • Replication of double-stranded DNA is an asymmetric process. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, evidence from the bovine system suggests that the activity of the large RNase HI correlates with DNA replication whereas that of the small RNase HII correlates with transcription ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Competition between homologous regions of Fen1 and p21Cip1 for binding to the same site on PCNA may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the functions of PCNA in DNA replication and repair (Warbrick, 1997). (sdbonline.org)
  • PCNA binds to flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), a structure-specific endonuclease involved in DNA replication. (sdbonline.org)
  • Flap EndoNuclease-1 (FEN-1) and the processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are central to DNA replication and repair. (sdbonline.org)
  • mRNA
  • XPG mRNA expression was not predictive of trabectedin efficacy as single agent in hormone-positive, HER-2 (zeige ERBB2 Antikörper )-negative advanced breast cancer. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This is because both reverse transcribed mRNA (cDNA), as well as the contaminating genomic DNA, can serve as template for the subsequent PCR amplification. (roche.com)
  • therapeutic
  • For over two decades, researchers have been trying to overcome major challenges for utilizing such RNAs in a therapeutic context, including intracellular delivery, stability, and immune response activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNAs are emerging as important biomarkers and therapeutic targets. (jove.com)
  • Thus, there is great potential in developing chemical probes and therapeutic ligands for the recognition of RNA sequence and structure. (jove.com)
  • tetranucleotides
  • Complete degradation is defined as the reduction of the majority of DNA fragments to tetranucleotides or smaller. (neb.com)
  • pathways
  • Organisms have evolved sophisticated DNA damage response pathways that sense the lesion and activate DNA repair to resolve the genomic insult 9 . (nature.com)
  • coli
  • Cell lysates were prepared with or without OmniCleave Endonuclease from E. coli cells expressing human lactate dehydrogenase B (LDH) and E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP). (lucigen.com)
  • lesions
  • Among the wide variety of known DNA lesions, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8oxoG) has received a lot of attention due to its mutagenicity and because of the possible correlation between its accumulation and pathological processes like cancer, degenerative diseases, and aging. (hindawi.com)
  • However, an increasing number of studies also include other types of DNA lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • mammalian
  • We discuss how human genetic studies as well as several investigations on mammalian models and simpler eukaryotic organisms have contributed to a better understanding of the involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in aging. (hindawi.com)
  • organisms
  • Numerous studies report measurement of DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from tissues of young and old organisms, with variable outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • synthesis
  • A PCNA binding peptide from p21Cip1 competes with Fen1 peptides for binding to PCNA, disrupts the Fen1-PCNA complex in replicating cell extracts, and concomitantly inhibits DNA synthesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mismatch repair activity was examined in human cell extracts using an assay that does not require DNA repair synthesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • cDNA
  • The cDNA clone is shipped in a 2-D bar-coded Matrix tube as dried plasmid DNA. (origene.com)
  • This primer design strategy includes one or more intronic sequence motifs in the genomic DNA shifting the amplification efficiency of the PCR reaction toward the cDNA template. (roche.com)
  • eukaryotic
  • This paper explores some of the recent research, which has been performed in order to uncover the relationship between DNA damage, DNA repair mechanisms, and the aging process, and emphasis is given to the use of eukaryotic model systems for this area of research. (hindawi.com)