Loading...
  • hypoxia
  • Due to its long gestational length, similarity of endocrine and physiological systems, and relative ease of fetal and maternal instrumentation, the sheep has emerged as a major animal model for studying the impact of hypoxia on the developing fetus. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies have largely focused on so-called acute hypoxia in which a moderate-to-severe hypoxia (a decrease in fetal PO 2 of 50% or greater) is induced for times ranging from minutes to several hours or chronic hypoxia in which the fetus is made hypoxic for one to several days. (hindawi.com)
  • Our model of long-term hypoxia (LTH) uses pregnant ewes maintained at high altitude (3,820 m, Barcroft Laboratory White Mountain Research Station, Bishop, CA) from approximately 40 days' gestational age onward resulting in a maintained fetal PO 2 of ~18 mmHg (normal ~23-25 mmHg) thus resulting in a moderate state of continuous hypoxia [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Under these conditions, fetal hypoxia is achieved without accompanying acidosis, the pregnancies are of normal duration, and the fetuses do not exhibit growth restriction [ 15 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Pathological findings include pulmonary vascular remodeling and smooth muscle hyperplasia in the absence of significant lung parenchyma pathology ( 15 , 29 ), changes that may be the result of prolonged fetal stress and hypoxia. (physiology.org)
  • cortisol
  • Estrogen Regulation of Fetal Adrenal Cortical Zone-Specific Development in the Nonhuman Primate Impacts Adrenal Production of Androgen and Cortisol and Response to ACTH in Females in Adulthood. (nih.gov)
  • We discuss mechanisms involved in the delicate balance between these seemingly opposing responses that preserve the normal ontogenic rise in fetal plasma cortisol essential for organ maturation and in this species, birth. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acid-stimulated increases in fetal glucagon, cortisol, and NE may contribute to a shift in substrate oxidation by the fetus from glucose to amino acids. (physiology.org)
  • tissues
  • Here, we systematically analyzed tissues from human fetal first (4-12 weeks) and second (13-18 weeks) trimester, adolescent (14-19 years) and adult (50-55 years) hearts to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of elastic fibers, focusing on semilunar valves. (biologists.org)
  • Melanocortin 2 receptor-associated protein (MRAP) and MRAP2 in human adrenocortical tissues: regulation of expression and association with ACTH responsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • The other hypothesis is that ribosomes from different tissues may have different compositions of core or more loosely associated proteins and posttranslational modifications, and that this heterogeneity could be critical to the translation of specific mRNAs. (sciencemag.org)
  • We argue that while such heterogeneity in ribosome composition likely exists in different tissues, such complex explanations may not be needed to explain the differences in gene expression that result from losses of specific ribosomal proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • Because this fetal hemoglobin is unaffected by the genetic defect in sickle cell disease (SCD), the cell culture findings may open the door to a new therapy for the debilitating blood disorder. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hematologists have long sought to reactivate fetal hemoglobin as a treatment for children and adults with SCD, the painful, sometimes life-threatening genetic disorder that deforms red blood cells and disrupts normal circulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current study, the researchers used a specialized tool, a genetically engineered zinc finger (ZF) protein, which they custom-designed to latch onto a specific DNA site carrying the code for fetal hemoglobin. (eurekalert.org)
  • liver
  • To study cell kinetics involved in long-term hematopoiesis, we studied single-sorted candidate HSCs from fetal liver that were cultured in the presence of a mixture of stimulatory cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • To study the functional heterogeneity of candidate HSCs, we followed the fate of single-sorted fetal liver CD34 + CD38 − cells that were cultured in cytokine-supplemented serum-free medium. (rupress.org)
  • development
  • The difference is that during foetal development everything is controlled down to the smallest detail, while cancer development has mutations that turn awfully wrong. (uib.no)
  • The electrophoretic mobilities of the α- and β-subunits on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography were similar at different stages of development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Estrogen elicits cortical zone-specific effects on development of the primate fetal adrenal gland. (nih.gov)
  • Integration of these adaptive responses to LTH plays a key role in promoting normal fetal growth and development under conditions of a chronic stress. (hindawi.com)
  • The epigenome undergoes extensive reprogramming throughout fetal development at gametogenesis and early embryo preimplantation [ 5 ], representing vulnerable stages to environmental exposures. (annalsofglobalhealth.org)
  • fetus
  • Inhibition of fetal adrenal adrenocorticotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression by betamethasone administration to the baboon fetus in late gestation. (nih.gov)
  • The water in the amniotic fluid initially passes from the mother's blood through the fetal membranes to the fetus. (curejoy.com)
  • axis
  • We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), anterior pituitary corticotrope, and adrenal cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • metabolic
  • current research has shown that as much as 64 percent of postoperative bariatric and metabolic surgical patients are not reaching the recommended daily protein intake. (bariatrictimes.com)
  • Discuss interventions to improve patient adherence for recommended protein quality and amount following bariatric and metabolic surgery. (bariatrictimes.com)
  • growth
  • The expression level of ACTIVIN-A, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FGF-2 was similar in buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) cultured in stem cell medium (SCM), SCM+1000IUmL(-1) leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), SCM+5ngmL(-1) FGF-2 or SCM+LIF+FGF-2 for 24h whereas GREMLIN expression was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While these hypoxic conditions may impact fetal growth, effects on other organ systems are less clear. (hindawi.com)
  • In one study the mean level of free PGH were significantly higher in pregnant women with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM), possibly associated with the fall in growth hormone binding protein . (plos.org)
  • expression
  • While there was little variation in levels of 98K protein between cell lines, appreciable differences in the expression of the 80K component were apparent. (nih.gov)
  • There was no correlation between MDM2 and p53 expression in any of the adenovirus transformants, nor with the viral proteins expressed. (nih.gov)
  • p53 transcriptional activity was similar in all of the cell lines examined and did not correlate with protein expression. (nih.gov)
  • However, when expression of p53 was increased following infection with mutant adenoviruses, which do not express the larger E1B proteins, there was an appreciable increase in p53 transcriptional activity and in the levels of all of the MDM2 components. (nih.gov)
  • Tropoelastin/elastin protein expression was first detectable in leaflets of 7-week hearts. (biologists.org)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) expression and activity are decreased in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). (physiology.org)
  • In 1-day spontaneously breathing lambs, eNOS expression in resistance pulmonary arteries increased relative to fetal levels. (physiology.org)
  • O 2 stimulates NO production by fetal pulmonary artery (PA) endothelial cells ( 12 ), dilates the pulmonary vasculature, and increases pulmonary eNOS expression in the fetal lamb ( 2 ). (physiology.org)
  • cells
  • Birkeland grows breast cancer cells in culture flasks, to see which proteins the cells secrete. (uib.no)
  • Similar differentiation of pancreatic precursor cells was observed after transplant in immunodeficient rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that p53 is present at high levels in adenovirus-transformed cells which express the larger E1B protein. (nih.gov)
  • Stable interactions were observed between p53 and MDM2 in the adenovirus-transformed cell lines and in Ad5 E1 HEK 293 cells a ternary complex of p53, MDM2, and the Ad5 E1B 58K protein was demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that DNMT3L protein was present only in EC cells, but not in the other types of TGCT components and cancer cells of somatic tissue origin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • activity
  • Studying these changes tells a lot about the activity of the proteins, compared to looking at the proteins isolated. (uib.no)
  • The cellular protein MDM2 can bind to the tumor suppressor gene product p53 and abrogate its transcriptional activity. (nih.gov)
  • synthesis
  • Several models have been advanced to explain how the dysfunction of the protein synthesis machinery is so variably expressed at the phenotypic level. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fetal protein accretion (2.6 ± 0.5 and 2.2 ± 0.6 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively), synthesis (6.2 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 0.9 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively), and degradation (3.6 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 1.0 μmol·min −1 ·kg −1 in AA and Con, respectively) rates were similar between groups. (physiology.org)
  • Levels
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • increase
  • The cancer researcher explains that the reason behind this increase is that the proteins are modified after they are formed. (uib.no)
  • explain
  • In order to explain why proteins are so important, Birkeland uses two images of footballer Alan Shearer, as a 17-year-old and a 43-year-old respectively, as an example. (uib.no)
  • The hope is to find proteins that may help explain why there is an increased formation of blood vessels in this cancer type, and finding new treatments based on this. (uib.no)
  • Explain the influencing factors that impact protein digestion and absorbability postoperatively. (bariatrictimes.com)
  • higher
  • In spent medium, the concentration of ACTIVIN-A was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups whereas that of TGF-β1 was similar in SCM and LIF+FGF-2, which was higher than when either LIF or FGF-2 was used alone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • define
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)