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  • apoptosis
  • The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Constant up-regulation of BiP/GRP78 expression prevents virus-induced apoptosis in BHK-21 cells with Japanese encephalitis virus persistent infection. (nih.gov)
  • We previously reported the establishment of spontaneous JEV persistent infection, assisted by defective interfering particle accumulation and/or attenuated helper viruses, in BHK-21 cells devoid of virus-induced apoptosis, cBS6-2 and cBS6-3. (nih.gov)
  • BHK-21 cells with JEV persistent infection strive against virus-induced apoptosis through constant up-regulation of BiP expression, resulting in the complete depletion of CHOP even with apparent virus amplification in the cells. (nih.gov)
  • Persistently JEV-infected cell clones show apoptosis resistance even with active virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • JEV infection induces severe cytopathic effects in various cell culture systems, including BHK-21 cells, and researchers have documented the ER stress response and subsequent apoptosis in the JEV-infected cells [31, (nih.gov)
  • In order to assess how much of the JEV persistently infected BHK-21 cell population is destined to apoptosis while continuously producing infectious virus particles, the two BHK-21 cell clones with JEV persistent infection-cBS6-2 and cBS6-3-were subjected to flow cytometry analysis after annexin V/propidium iodide staining. (nih.gov)
  • YAP/TAZ are effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway that restricts organ growth by keeping in check cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in mammals and also in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cluster is called Oncomir-1 because all members have been connected with inducing enhanced cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The miRNAs of oncomir-1 and its paralogs are likely contribute to tumorigenesis by disregulating critical target genes such as ones involved in apoptosis, proliferation and blocking differentiation or cell cycle exit. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown to be involved in diverse biological processes, such as TCR signaling, apoptosis, adult mammary gland development, and sexual dimorphism of liver gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, both p53 and DNAJA3 must be present in the mitochondria in order to induce apoptosis in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT3 mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a postdoctoral fellow at the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, D'Andrea cloned the erythropoietin receptor, a protein known to rescue red blood cell progenitors from apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen. (hhmi.org)
  • protein
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that viruses have evolved various mechanisms to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways for their efficient amplification and transmission, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). (nih.gov)
  • Of the selected UPR factors tested, the most noticeable deviations from those of the normal BHK-21 cells with JEV acute infection were as follows: the suppression of C/EBP homologous binding protein (CHOP) and the constant up-regulation of immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP) expression in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Explore the phases, checkpoints, and protein regulators of the cell cycle in this highly interactive Click and Learn and find out how mutated versions of these proteins can lead to the development of cancer. (hhmi.org)
  • Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway. (hhmi.org)
  • An advanced lesson that requires students to analyze partial DNA sequences of the Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway. (hhmi.org)
  • Heat shock protein (hsp) 70 protects cells against stress by means of its ability to chaperone denatured proteins and to modulate stress-activated signaling pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAT5B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein mediates the signal transduction triggered by various cell ligands, such as IL2, IL4, CSF1, and different growth hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dysregulation of the signaling pathways mediated by this protein may be the cause of the APML. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a mitochondrial protein, it is involved in maintaining membrane potential and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, as well as cellular processes such as cell movement, growth, and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased activity of STAT3 in cancer cells, leads to changes in the function of protein complexes that control expression of inflammatory genes, with result profound change in the secretome and the cell phenotypes, their activity in the tumor, and their capacity for metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like multiple myeloma patients, pPCL patients exhibit pathologically high levels of monoclonal plasma cells in their bone marrow plus a malignant plasma cell-secreted circulating monoclonal myeloma protein, either IgG, IgA, a light chain, or none in 28-56%, 4-7%, 23-44%, or 0-12% of cases, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genetic abnormalities effect the Wnt signaling pathway, regulation of the cell cycle, RNA metabolism, protein folding, and cadherin-related cell adherence to extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • His team discovered that in mice, both types of cells showed temporal expression of profiles of all known clock genes, the phases of various mRNA rhythms, the delay between maximum mRNA levels and appearance of nuclear PER1 and PER2 protein, the inability to produce circadian oscillations in the absence of functional Cry genes, and the control of period length by CRY proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be involved in small GTPase mediated signal transduction and intracellular protein transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Using two distinct methods, Whitehead Institute researchers have successfully and consistently manipulated targeted genes in both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (adult cells that have been reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state). (mit.edu)
  • A series of synthetic oleane triterpenoid compounds, known as antioxidant inflammation modulators (AIMs), are being developed by Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and are potent inducers of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, blocking Keap1-dependent Nrf2 ubiquitination and leading to the stabilization and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent induction of Nrf2 target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okamura's research group cloned mammalian Period genes, visualized clock oscillation at the single cell level in the central clock of the SCN, and proposed a time-signal neuronal pathway to the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okamura became interested in the possible differences of autonomously rhythmic clock genes in fibroblast cell lines and those in the SCN. (wikipedia.org)
  • They succeeded in monitoring the rhythmic transcription of genes at the single cell level in real-time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse open brain (opb) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) genes have opposing roles in neural patterning: opb is required for dorsal cell types and Shh is required for ventral cell types in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • 1999). "Flotillins/cavatellins are differentially expressed in cells and tissues and form a hetero-oligomeric complex with caveolins in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyrosine
  • These results were corroborated by inhibition of EGFR-HER2 signalling with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, because only the blocking of both receptors in HER2VE-cells with the bi-specific inhibitor AEE788 downregulated migration to levels comparable with those in HER2VEKA cells. (biologists.org)
  • To determine which cells are dopaminergic, experiments measured the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is needed for dopamine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic stem
  • miRNA libraries constructed from cloning and sequencing short RNAs derived from cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells have shown miR-92 to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that at these early stages of development, STAT3 activation is required for self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and adult cells reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state-so-called induced pluripotent stem or iPS cells-exhibit very few differences in their gene expression signatures and are nearly indistinguishable in their chromatin state, according to Whitehead Institute researchers. (mit.edu)
  • The second one, provided by the triggering of CD40 with anti-CD40 mAb, recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L), 2 or membrane CD40L expressed on different cell types including activated T cells, induces the expression of the mature ε transcript encoding for IgE ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Second, Dpp and EGF signaling collaborate in controlling the expression of Dpp inhibitors. (biologists.org)
  • Notch activity normally only triggers Atonal expression in cells that have adopted the pre-proneural state induced by Dpp. (biologists.org)
  • Whereas northern analysis failed to reveal differences in expression between total RNA from roots and nodules, in situ hybridization demonstrated that the transcript was most abundant in dividing cells of nodule primordia and in the nodule meristem. (deepdyve.com)
  • While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In JEV acute infection on normal BHK-21 cells, silencing CHOP expression through specific siRNA blocked cell death almost completely.Meanwhile, depletion of BiP by specific siRNA unlocked CHOP expression in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells, resulting in massive cell death.Fulminant apoptotic cell death for both cell clones on tunicamycin treatment revealed that the JEV persistently infected cells still contained functional arms for cell fate decisions. (nih.gov)
  • To identify the host cell factors that affect JEV persistence, we investigated the expression of essential UPR factors in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • In JEV acute infection on normal BHK-21 cells, silencing CHOP expression through specific siRNA blocked cell death almost completely. (nih.gov)
  • Meanwhile, depletion of BiP by specific siRNA unlocked CHOP expression in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells, resulting in massive cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This is further confirmed by studies showing that when forcing NURR1 expression in naïve precursor cells, there is complete dopamine phenotype gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS binds to toll-like receptors (TLR), which induces inflammatory gene expression by promoting signal-dependent transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • When a short hairpin for Nurr1 was expressed in microglia and astrocytes, these cells produced inflammatory mediators, such as TNFa, NO synthase and IL-1β, supporting the conclusion that reduced Nurr1 promotes inflammation and leads to cell death of dopaminergic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • The role of E-cadherin is well characterised in epithelial tumours, where it functions as a tumour suppressor that is downregulated in neoplastic transformation, thus decreasing the strength of cellular adhesion within a tissue and promoting tumour-cell migration ( Birchmeier and Behrens, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Human
  • By irradiating typical polystyrene lab plates with ultraviolet (UV) waves, Whitehead Institute and MIT scientists have created a surface capable of tripling the number of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that can be grown in culture by current methods. (mit.edu)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • The infiltration and migration of glioma cells into the surrounding brain tissue is a major clinical problem in human neuro-oncology. (biologists.org)
  • Cloning of human Stat5B. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human and murine orthologues of QSulf1, HSulf1 and MSulf1, respectively, were cloned and characterized after the discovery of QSulf1. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pathways are often disrupted in cancer cells, accounting for chromosome instability and increased gene mutation frequency in human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • In this study we deal with two aspects of Dpp signaling within the follicular epithelium: first, with the global function of Dpp in the Grk-dependent specification of all dorsal follicle cell fates, and second, with the interplay of Dpp and EGF signaling gradients in specifying distinct dorsal follicle cell fates. (biologists.org)
  • These findings suggest that differential PI synthesis represents an early biochemical event that distinguishes two functionally distinct signaling pathways coupled to TCR ligation by peptide Ag and retroviral superantigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • ligation
  • TCR ligation by MIs-1a/MTV superantigens may be coupled to an alternative signal transduction pathway without increased [Ca2+]i or detectable PI hydrolysis. (jimmunol.org)
  • We asked whether early events in the PI hydrolytic pathway might account for differential levels of PI breakdown after TCR ligation by conventional Ag and superantigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • helper
  • 4 min 21 sec) View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper T cell-interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. (hhmi.org)
  • A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. (hhmi.org)
  • During viral infection, mice lacking STAT3 in T-cells display impairment in the ability to generate T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells and fail to maintain antibody based immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, this finding led to the discovery of the dichotomy of helper T cells, Th1 and Th2. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Members of this group include LIF-R, OSM-R, and G-CSF-R. gp130 is an important part of many different types of signaling complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • In order to clone the channel a pure, full-length sample of mRNA was essential together with a quick and sensitive isolation procedure. (thermofisher.com)
  • substrate
  • Incorporation of radiolabeled glucose by newly synthesized PI as well as inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate provided direct evidence that this intracellular pool of PI represents an important substrate for this signaling pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • neural
  • We provide evidence that Notch activation by its ligand Delta is the second Hh-dependent signal required for neural determination. (biologists.org)
  • regulation
  • In addition, Sulfs may exercise another level of regulation over HS composition by down or upregulating HS biosynthetic enzymes present in the Golgi through the very same signaling pathways they modify. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi
  • downregulation of N-cadherin by RNAi restored migration in HER2VEKA cells and N-cadherin was also downregulated in migrating HER2VE-cells. (biologists.org)
  • roles
  • However, cell-specific factors may play important roles in controlling JEV replication and have never been assessed for this specific phenomenon. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • Whitehead Institute researchers have determined that the planarian flatworm regenerates missing tissues by using pluripotent adult stem cells. (mit.edu)
  • Until now, scientists could not determine whether the dividing cells in planarians, called neoblasts, are a mixture of specialized stem cells that each regenerates specific tissues, or if individual neoblasts are pluripotent and able to regenerate all tissues. (mit.edu)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Autophagy is a process of programmed cell death (PCD) through which damaged tissues and pathogens are removed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, mir-92 was also present in libraries constructed from four-day-old fully differentiated cells, as well as libraries constructed from adult tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • One of these inhibitors is Drosophila sno (dSno ), a homolog of the Ski/Sno family of vertebrate proto-oncogenes, which synergizes with daughters against dpp and brinker to set the posterior and lateral limits of the region, giving rise to dorsal follicle cells. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila
  • This restriction depends on a second, anterior signal that is likely to be provided by Decapentaplegic (Dpp), one of the TGF-β family members in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is involved in the development of the wing disc, survival and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • In contrast to lysosomal active sulfatases, QSulf1 localizes exclusively to the cell surface by interacting hydrophilically with a non-heparan sulfate outer membrane component, and is enzymatically active at a neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are small domains on the inner cell membrane involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • New findings by scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Whitehead Institute point to a decentralized society in tumors, with cancer cells able to interconvert between different types. (mit.edu)
  • These results have potential implications for the treatment of tumors, in particular, that attacking cancer stem cells alone may not be enough to fight cancer. (mit.edu)
  • and c) lower rates of bone but higher rates of soft tissue plasma cell tumors termed plasmacytomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whitehead Institute
  • Despite their unassuming appearance, the planarian flatworms in Whitehead Institute Member Peter Reddien's lab are revealing powerful new insights into the biology of stem cells-insights that may eventually help such cells deliver on a promising role in regenerative medicine. (mit.edu)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) has named Whitehead Institute Founding Member Rudolf Jaenisch the winner of the 2012 McEwen Award for Innovation. (mit.edu)
  • Tweaking the levels of factors used during the reprogramming of adult cells into induced pluriopotent stem (iPS) cells can greatly affect the quality of the resulting iPS cells, according to Whitehead Institute researchers. (mit.edu)
  • Certain differentiated cells in breast tissue can spontaneously convert to a stem-cell-like state, according to Whitehead Institute researchers. (mit.edu)
  • restricts
  • Previous work has shown that the Notch signalling pathway also has a proneural role in the eye (as well as a later, opposite function when it restricts the number of cells becoming photoreceptors - a process of lateral inhibition). (biologists.org)
  • precursor
  • PCL is caused by the development of an excessively high number of genetic abnormalities in plasma cells or, more particularly, their precursor B cells and plasmablasts (see plasma cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary plasma cell leukemia (sPCL) results from the comparatively slow development of plasma cell/plasma cell precursor genetic abnormalities which initially create a clone of cells that cause the premalignant condition of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • This recognition initiates T cell activation and expansion, ultimately leading to destruction of the pathogen. (thermofisher.com)
  • For successful T cell activation, Ca 2+ influx needs to be sustained for at least two hours. (thermofisher.com)
  • An alternative pathway for STAT activation that is mediated by the direct interaction between JAK and STAT". Oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • persistent
  • Immune-like cells in the central nervous system are now recognized as key participants in the creation and maintenance of persistent pain. (the-scientist.com)
  • Persistent infection of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) has been reported in clinical cases, experimental animals, and various cell culture systems. (nih.gov)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, if added later on B cells that are already IgE switched, IL-10 potentiates IgE production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genes
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • The selected pathways were used to design panels of real-time PCR primers tailored for the top-ranked genes for differential gene expression analysis. (bio-rad.com)
  • receptors
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reasons for these effects are not well understood, even though σ1 receptors have been linked circumstantially to a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wide scope and effect of ligand binding on σ1 receptors has led some to believe that σ1 receptors are intracellular signal transduction amplifiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • gene
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Each gene target within a pathway was assigned a score based on the frequency of differential expression and its research significance. (bio-rad.com)
  • The gene product also affects fibroblast growth factor signaling, inhibiting or stimulating growth through MAPK/ERK signaling. (genecards.org)
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It shows no homology to other mammalian proteins but strikingly shares 30% sequence identity and 69% similarity with the ERG2 gene product of yeast, which is a C 8-C7 sterol isomerase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Each pathway belongs to one or more general biological categories such as cancer. (bio-rad.com)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Inhibition of follicular T helper cells by CD8+ Treg is essential for self tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Cantor's early studies focused on the development and function of lymphocytes derived from the thymus (T-lymphocytes or T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach depended on the use of antibodies to cell surface glycoproteins or "markers" that might identify specialized subsets of lymphocytes with particular immunologic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Recognition and analysis of these transient cell populations has been hampered by technical difficulties in accessing them in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • This experimental approach was also used to investigate other lymphocyte populations, including "natural killer" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • V-ATPase 116 kDa isoform a2 is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which is essential for the acidification of diverse cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose
  • Glucose breakdown produces ROS, which leads to Daxx production and relocalization, activating JNK pathway in turn. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways and components between even vastly different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells of some tissues normally do not express LECT2 but do so under a variety of disease conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • analysis
  • Further to this HAP1 wild-type cells have been extensively characterized by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Additionally, this information is listed on the Certificate of Analysis for the cell line. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Hu D, †Ikizawa K, Lu L, Sanchirico ME, Shinohara ML, Cantor H. Analysis of regulatory CD8 cells in mice deficient in the Qa-1 class Ib molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)