• Specific in vitro and in vivo experiments may identify JNKs as crucial components of signal transduction cascades which control heptocyte functions during physiological and disease conditions. (grstiftung.ch)
  • In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. (uchicago.edu)
  • Responses of cells to environmental signals, toxins and stressors have profound implications for diverse aspects of human health and disease including development, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, asthma, heart, autoimmune diseases and cancer. (novapublishers.com)
  • Two-component signal transduction (TCST) systems are the principal means for coordinating responses to environmental changes in bacteria as well as some plants, fungi, protozoa, and archaea. (nih.gov)
  • Responses of cells to environmental signals, toxins and stressors have profound implications for diverse aspects of human health and disease including development, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, asthma, heart, autoimmune diseases and cancer. (novapublishers.com)
  • When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noise maps an input signal to a distribution of possible output responses, which can cause loss of information about the input. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data provide a molecular basis for MIF's interaction with target cells and identify it as a natural ligand for CD74, which has been implicated previously in signaling and accessory functions for immune cell activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These effects of H. pylori attachment to cells suggests that alteration of host cell signal transduction might lead to chronic inflammation and perhaps may lead to the oncogenic transformation that are the hallmarks of symptomatic H. pylori infection. (pnas.org)
  • The Signal Transduction Program explores the molecular signals within and between cells that drive cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • How do these cells process incoming signals and how do they pass them on? (fz-juelich.de)
  • Mostly, the cell makes the signaling chemical, then lets these chemicals out to diffuse through the fluid outside the cell to other cells nearby. (everything2.com)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which cells convert one type of stimulus into a new type of signal. (novusbio.com)
  • Many reviews on signaling components in guard cells have been highly focused on single signaling components and have appeared in different journals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The proposed Frontiers Topic on "Signal Transduction in Stomatal Guard Cells" would provide a compendium of reviews by experts, all in one place and would be an excellent source of information to those interested in guard cell function as well as signal transduction in plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined with cells cultured at a pH of around 7.4. (mdpi.com)
  • Cells must respond to a wide variety of signals. (cshlpress.com)
  • In SKW6.4 (type I) cells characterized by rapid formation of the death-inducing signaling complex on Fas treatment, the activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3, cleavage of DFF45 (ICAD), and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm were not affected by reduction of intracellular ATP, although chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were inhibited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggested that the ATP-dependent step(s) of Fas-mediated apoptotic signal transduction in type I cells are only located downstream of caspase 3 activation, whereas the activation of caspase 9 by released cytochrome c is the most upstream ATP-dependent step in type II cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells receive external cues and signals from many different molecular sources, both nearby and far away. (yale.edu)
  • Study and manipulation of protein homeostasis and signaling pathways in live cells, optogenetic tools for controlling protein interactions, synthetic biology, cytosolic protein misfolding, yeast genetics/genomics. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Analogous to the mammalian tissue culture lines and transient gene expression assays that are indispensable for the rapid progress in discoveries of signal transduction pathways in multicellular organisms, protoplast transient expression systems using parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ), maize ( Zea mays ), carrot ( Daucus carota ), alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), Arabidopsis, and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) suspension culture cells have been established. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The process by which cells receive, transduce and respond to signals is vitally important in all activities that characterize the term life. (openu.ac.il)
  • Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca 2+ -signaling specificity in plants. (osti.gov)
  • In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca 2+ -sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca 2+ -signaling. (osti.gov)
  • The taste lab serves as a good starting point for exploring how cells of the nervous system send signals to the brain. (biologycorner.com)
  • Cells also signal through gap junctions. (majortests.com)
  • The immune response in vertebrates also involves paracrine signaling between immune cells. (majortests.com)
  • Signals released from a cell have an effect on neighboring cells. (majortests.com)
  • 4. Synaptic signaling- In animals, the cells of the nervous system provide rapid communication with distant cells. (majortests.com)
  • Nerve cells release the signal (neurotransmitter) which binds to receptors on nearby cells. (majortests.com)
  • Where paracrine signals move through the fluid between cells, neuro-transmitters cross the synaptic gap and persist only briefly. (majortests.com)
  • Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. (novapublishers.com)
  • While performing this sensory transduction process, the inner ear analyzes a sound stimulus in terms of its frequency, intensity, and temporal properties, and it transmits this information to the CNS for further processing and interpretation. (medscape.com)
  • A sophisticated signalling system is then activated which initially involves the phosphodiesteratic hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1,2-diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (biologists.org)
  • Postdoc position - signal transduction & transcription Applications are invited for postdoctoral positions in a newly established research group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) in Uppsala, Sweden. (bio.net)
  • This volume is devoted primarily to methods used to study either the behavior of bacteria in response to their environment or methods used to study events that involve signaling pathways that are initiated by events at the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Each of us daily using immunohistochemical protocols to reveal targets either useful for research or diagnostic aims will surely wonder by which tricky techniques it is possible to overcome the preservation and unmasking of those labile antigens involved in signal transduction. (springer.com)
  • A complex network of signal transduction pathways within the cell ensures that these signals are relayed to the correct molecular targets and that the cell responds appropriately. (cshlpress.com)