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  • mammalian
  • More recently, Jackson and coworkers ( 11 , 12 , 14 ) have shown that in Xenopus eggs and in mammalian cells, Emi1 blocks the degradation of both cyclin A and cyclin B by inhibiting the activity of both APC/C Cdc20 and APC/C Cdh1 . (pnas.org)
  • This belief was taken apart when it became clear that only few of the ejaculated spermatozoa - in humans, only ~1 of every million spermatozoa - succeed in entering the oviducts (Fallopian tubes) and when more recent studies showed that mammalian spermatozoa do respond chemotactically. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, most sperm chemoattractants that have been identified in non-mammalian species are peptides or low-molecular-weight proteins (1-20 kDa), which are heat stable and sensitive to proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This belief was taken apart when it became clear that only few of the ejaculated spermatozoa - in humans, only ~1 of every million spermatozoa - succeed in entering the oviducts (Fallopian tubes) and when more recent studies showed that mammalian spermatozoa employ at least three different mechanisms, each of which can potentially serve as a guidance mechanism: chemotaxis, thermotaxis and rheotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • However, the protein kinase(s) involved has not been identified. (pnas.org)
  • We find that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a protein kinase that accumulates in mitosis, markedly stimulates the ligation of Emi1 to ubiquitin by purified SCF β-TrCP . (pnas.org)
  • Cdk1-cyclin B, another major mitotic protein kinase, has no influence on this process by itself but stimulates the action of Plk1 at low, physiological concentrations. (pnas.org)
  • Mitotic phosphorylation of APC/C is carried out by the protein kinases Cdk1-cyclin B and Polo-like kinase (Plk1) ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • binds
  • The specific regulator protein, the IRE-BP, binds to IREs in both 5' and 3' regions, but only to RNA in the apo form, without the Fe-S cluster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • We have previously shown that in Nicotiana sylvestris cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) mutants where the mtDNA lacks the nad7 gene coding for a subunit of respiratory Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.5.3 ), glycine (Gly) oxidation was lower than in the wild type and insensitive to rotenone, suggesting Complex I dysfunction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Genetically, the 58kb biosynthetic gene cluster is composed of 12 open reading frames (ORFs), as shown in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The figure below shows the proposed biosynthesis of psymberin based on analysis of the gene clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • have shown that the aminotransferase gene may be absent, and this activity can be supplied via its primary metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHSG gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene product belongs to the SCAMP family of proteins which are secretory carrier membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Humans express the following two aconitase isozymes: Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • One study has found that these steroid-carrier complexes are bound by megalin, a membrane receptor, and are then taken into cells via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible pathway is that once inside the cell these complexes are taken to the lysosome, where the carrier protein is degraded and the steroid hormone is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • 17. A method for producing a monoclonal antibody according to claim 9, wherein said hapten-carrier conjugate comprises a protein carrier, a linker covalently bonded to the carrier, and a chemical moiety covalently bonded to the linker, wherein said chemical moiety has an affinity for the metal ion. (google.com)
  • PRP covalently linked to a protein carrier was found to elicit a greater immune response than the polysaccharide form of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to precursors with an NH 2 -terminal targeting presequence that are imported in a linear NH 2 -terminal manner, we show that Tim23p crosses the outer membrane as a loop before inserting into the inner membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Examples of the latter include acting as a carrier for GFP, MRI contrast agents, or quantum dots. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Previous studies have shown that Emi1 is targeted for degradation in mitosis by a Skp1-Cullin1 F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex that contains the F-box protein β-TrCP. (pnas.org)
  • electrostatic
  • beta-CIN has the same overall structure as beta-cryptogein (beta-CRY), an elicitin secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, although it shows a different surface electrostatic potential distribution. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The first step in this proposed model is an interaction with the unfolded fusion protein (TAT) and the membrane through electrostatic interactions, which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • Recent studies showed that elicitins function as sterol carrier proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The Tim8p-Tim13p complex facilitates translocation across the intermembrane space by binding to the membrane spanning domains as shown by Tim23p peptide scans with the purified Tim8p-Tim13p complex and crosslinking studies with Tim23p fusion constructs. (rupress.org)
  • To determine if the translocation mechanism via a loop formation for the carrier family is general for polytopic inner membrane proteins, we have extended our studies to characterize the Tim8p-Tim13p complex and its role in mediating the import of Tim23p. (rupress.org)
  • regulation
  • The regulation of PIN localisation by auxin creates a feedback loop where PIN proteins control the directionality of auxin fluxes, and auxin in turn controls PIN proteins localisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • infants
  • Immunization of 2-month-old infants with protein-coupled oligosaccharides derived from the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b",J. Pediatrics,107:346-351,(1985). (patentgenius.com)
  • The CDC and WHO currently recommend that all infants be vaccinated using a polysaccharide-protein conjugate Hib vaccine, starting after the age of 6 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • They secrete large amounts of 10 kDa proteins called elicitins that can act as elicitors of plant defence mechanisms. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In CMS and NMS1, the fraction of the AOX pathway was increased, as compared to wild type, associated with higher amounts of aox transcripts, AOX protein, and plant resistance to cyanide. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Type
  • Antibody Responses to Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Diphtheria Toxin Induced by Conjugates of Oligosaccharides of the Type b Capsule with the Nontoxic Protein CRM",Infect. (patentgenius.com)
  • Immunogens Consisting of Oligosaccharides from the Capsule of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Coupled to Diphtheria Toxoid or the Toxin Protein CRM197",J. Clin. (patentgenius.com)
  • membrane
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • These targeting signals are thought to be recognized in the TGN or endosomes, which leads to the sorting of cargo proteins into transport vesicles destined for the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • We showed that the water flow out of and into the cells through water channels , or aquaporins, in the cell membrane is important," said Thommie Karlsson, researcher in medical microbiology and principal author of the article. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carbohydrate
  • In addition, dolichols can be adducted to proteins as a posttranslational modification, a process in which branched carbohydrate trees are formed on a dolichol moiety and then transferred to an assembly of proteins to form a large glycoprotein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Our recent study showing reversible regulation of tumor suppressor p53 by Complex I deficiency provides a mechanistic explanation for this (Compton et. (pvlsi.org)
  • receptor
  • 168 of 444 (37.8%) LPS-induced proteins were significantly reduced with the treatment of RGFP966, which mainly concentrated on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • These effects may be mediated by the defective functioning of estrogen via the estrogen receptor, which contains a zinc finger protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H3 receptor has also been shown to presynaptically inhibit the release of a number of other neurotransmitters (i.e. it acts as an inhibitory heteroreceptor) including, but probably not limited to dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, histamine and serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H3 receptor is coupled to the Gi G-protein, so it leads to inhibition of the formation of cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • e.g. a truncation of the receptor protein at residue number 660 leads to domains 3,4 and 5 of the EGF precursor domain being missing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This precludes the movement of the receptor from the ER to the Golgi, and leads to degradation of the receptor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs
  • This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like domains, 7 LDL-R class A domains, and 6 LDL-R class B repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Mullbacher's paper showed that flaviviruses do the opposite: They specifically up -regulate surface levels of MHC class I. (As it happens, this had been described earlier, though I think only in specific cell types, 6 but this was the first time I had run into it. (iayork.com)
  • HDAC3 has been shown to regulate inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Together with histone acetylases (HATs), HDACs regulate acetylation level of histones (H3, H2AK5, H4K5, H4K12, H2B, H4K8, and H4K16) as well as some other proteins (p65 and myocyte enhancer factor 2) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This led to high levels of fatty acyl-CoA being present in the liver, which shows that a diseased liver cannot regulate the amount of fatty acyl-CoA that is present versus a normal, healthy liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • 5 So it's pretty common for virus-infected cells to show reduced levels of MHC class I. (iayork.com)
  • The George Fleming Prize recognises Dr Mobasheri's work in water channel proteins, which he found to play an important role in maintaining the function of cartilage cells following physical exercise in horses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using very sensitive methods, LECT2 protein can also be detected at low levels in the endothelial cells of hepatic arteries and veins including central veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • Novel zinc biomarkers, such as the erythrocyte LA:DGLA ratio, have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials and are being developed to more accurately detect dietary zinc deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • study
  • This model is based on our previous study showing that pathological overactivation of neurons could lead to full use of their spare respiratory capacity (Yadava & Nicholls 2007 This model proposes that even a very minor impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation could be detrimental under conditions of acute high-energy demands. (pvlsi.org)
  • Study done using fluorescence spectroscopy displayed a decrease in fluorescence emission of the protein upon binding to PLGA-COOH. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we used protein mass spectrometry to analyze protein alterations in LPS-treated primary microglia with the application of RGFP966. (hindawi.com)
  • This study shows that the isoprenoid changes in Alzheimer's disease differ from those occurring during normal aging, and, therefore, this disease cannot be regarded as a result of premature aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Dolichols play a role in the co-translational modification of proteins known as N-glycosylation in the form of dolichol phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the hydrolysis of long chain fatty acyl thioesters of acyl carrier protein or coenzyme A to form free fatty acid and the respective thiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical and biotechnological development has allowed novel approaches to this issue, in the form of engineered O2 carriers, widely known as "blood substitutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Lipid storage diseases can be inherited two ways: Autosomal recessive inheritance occurs when both parents carry and pass on a copy of the faulty gene, but neither parent show signs and symptoms of the condition and is not affected by the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • Results show that both PLGA-COOH and PLGA-PEG-NH2 bind to HMBP as studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluoresce and UV-vis spectroscopy. (scirp.org)
  • 136,137 Experimental results obtained from these ISAs have shown that the dynamic range is limited primarily by the spurious modulation associated with the wideband RF reference. (imbc-med.ru)
  • gene
  • Each child born to these parents have a 25 percent chance of inheriting both copies of the defective gene, a 50 percent chance of being a carrier, and a 25 percent chance of not inheriting either copy of the defective gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shows approximately 30% homology with the EGF precursor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • This transiently closes all PSII reaction centres, which prevents energy of PSII being passed to downstream electron carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • We show that syntaxin 3 contains a necessary and sufficient apical targeting signal centered around a conserved FMDE motif. (rupress.org)
  • surface
  • We investigated the interaction of PEGylated and un-PEGylated PLGA NPs with Recombinant Human Mannose-Binding Protein (HMBP) in an effort to understand the effect of surface modification on their binding to the protein. (scirp.org)
  • structure
  • On the other hand the fluorescence emission of the protein increased upon binding to the PLGA-PEG-NH2 indicating conformational changes in the protein structure. (scirp.org)
  • factor
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • In southern and northern regions, the Aedes group (camptorhynchus and vigilax) are the main RRV carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body undergoes aerobic respiration in order to provide sufficient delivery of O2 to the exercising skeletal muscles and the main determining factors are shown in figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • A 1994 trial showed that zinc doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • During aging, the human brain shows a progressive increase in levels of dolichol, a reduction in levels of ubiquinone, but relatively unchanged concentrations of cholesterol and dolichyl phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • done
  • Studies have been done to show that, while there is not direct correlation between palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and diabetes, streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased rat liver palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • In general, the majority of patients will show greater comfort and improved mobility twelve to 24 hours after each treatment. (greenwaydrvet.com.au)
  • Further serological testing showed that patients who had suffered "epidemic polyarthritis" in Queensland had antibodies to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • approximately
  • The drug has also been assessed at steroid hormone-associated carrier proteins, and shows very low binding to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) but high affinity for corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) approximately equal to that of progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • The law requires 50% of Title II grains to be bagged in the U.S. and 75% of U.S. food aid must ship on U.S. flag carrier vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • conversion
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Studies have shown that in rat's that are fed high fat diets, palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activity in the liver increased. (wikipedia.org)