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  • viruses
  • Several examples of intercellular and long-distance RNA movement have been described for higher plants, and of these, RNA viruses have become the subject of extensive investigation with regard to the molecular mechanisms that govern intercellular macromolecular trafficking ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Exemplified by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and other model viruses, RNA viruses facilitate the spread of their genomes by targeting plasmodesmata (Pd), membrane-lined pores that provide cytoplasmic continuity between adjacent cells and tissues ( 40 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 21561636 Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on lipids present in cellular membranes. (jove.com)
  • cellular
  • Therefore, PTB may serve as a bridge between the pyrimidine tract containing RNAs and a variety of cellular factors to fulfill different cellular functions. (rupress.org)
  • Higher eukaryotes have developed sophisticated strategies that allow them to regulate cellular and developmental events by the selective trafficking and localization of RNA (for a review, see references 78 and 82 ). (asm.org)
  • Elucidating the regulation and mechanism of MP-mediated RNA trafficking at the cellular and molecular level thus should reveal new paradigms to study systemic gene regulation. (asm.org)
  • High-throughput sequencing of ZC3H11A-cross-linked RNA showed that ZC3H11A binds to short purine-rich ribonucleotide stretches in cellular and adenoviral transcripts. (pnas.org)
  • The transcribed RNA now represents information required to direct cellular function to maintain cell homeostasis. (mdpi.com)
  • elongation
  • We find that differentiation (assessed by myogenin expression), elongation and fusion are prevented. (biologists.org)
  • Re-expression of EB1 as EB1-GFP restores all aspects of normal differentiation, whereas overexpression of EB3-GFP restores elongation but not fusion. (biologists.org)
  • Xist
  • In mammals X inactivation is initiated by expression of Xist RNA and involves the recruitment of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2), which mediate chromosome‐wide ubiquitination of histone H2A and methylation of histone H3, respectively. (embopress.org)
  • Here, we show that PRC1 recruitment by Xist RNA is independent of gene silencing. (embopress.org)
  • Xist expression early in ES cell differentiation establishes a chromosomal memory, which allows efficient H2A ubiquitination in differentiated cells and is independent of silencing and PRC2. (embopress.org)
  • Our data show that Xist recruits PRC1 components by both PRC2 dependent and independent modes and in the absence of PRC2 function is sufficient for the establishment of Polycomb‐based memory systems in X inactivation. (embopress.org)
  • 2002
  • Cytoplasmic MTs are bound and stabilized with their minus ends at specific structures, the subdistal appendages, at one end of the mother centriole ( Bornens, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • regulate
  • and OPN+) from the bone marrow of mice with and without diabetes and examined the expression of molecules that regulate the quiescence, apoptosis, and cell adhesion to maintain hematopoietic reconstitution. (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • abundantly expressed
  • ZBP1 is abundantly expressed in embryonic development, but its expression is silenced in most adult tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. (rupress.org)
  • inhibitor
  • The localization of Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes fits well with its role as a myelin-associated inhibitor of regenerative fiber growth and structural plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • isoforms
  • Here we describe the embryonic and postnatal expression of the three Nogo isoforms in the rat by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. (jneurosci.org)
  • sequences
  • PTB apparently participates in these functions through the binding of pyrimidine-rich RNA sequences. (rupress.org)
  • assays
  • Minigene reporter assays showed that Sam68 directly affected alternative splicing of CCND1 message, with a preference for the A870 allele that is known to favor cyclin D1b splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • repeats
  • A yeast gene, SRM1/PRP20, also contains these repeats and shows 30% amino acid identity to BJ1 in this region. (mpg.de)
  • analysis using
  • Cell cycle analysis using immunolabeling showed that the PNC dissociates at the beginning of mitosis and reforms at late telophase in the daughter nuclei. (rupress.org)
  • cell
  • B) Immunostaining of myoblasts in GM with mouse anti-EB1 shows the typical comet-like pattern at microtubule plus-ends, pointing from the center of the cell outwards. (biologists.org)
  • Empirical validation indicates that HURP has several characteristics in common with Aurora - A . These two genes have similar expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma, liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and cell cycle progression and across a variety of tissues and cell lines. (asm.org)
  • We show that wiskostatin strongly inhibits cytokinesis inducing cell binucleation without affecting the cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • c) introducing the RNA into the target cell, thereby inhibiting expression of the target gene. (google.com)
  • 17. The method of claim 12 in which the RNA is introduced within a body cavity of the organism and outside the target cell. (google.com)
  • RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. (rupress.org)
  • plasmid
  • Pubmed ID: 21043133 To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-N containing the N gene of Rabies Virus, the N gene of RV CVS-11 strain was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). (jove.com)
  • infection
  • 14. The method of claim 13 in which a formulation comprised of the RNA is applied on or adjacent to a plant, and disease associated with nematode infection of the plant is thereby reduced. (google.com)