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  • nuclear
  • Recent research indicate that siRNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing through DNA methylation occur in various human cell types [ 14 , 15 ], and small nuclear RNAs (e.g., 7SK and U6) have been downregulated by ectopic siRNA activity [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Genotoxic stress, such as ionizing radiation or oxidative stress (4 , 5) , has been shown to induce an activation of the nuclear c-Abl. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As many lncRNAs regulate nuclear events and thus must localize to nuclei, we analyzed the sequence requirements for nuclear localization in an intergenic lncRNA named BORG (BMP2-OP1-responsive gene), which is both spliced and polyadenylated but is strictly localized in nuclei. (asm.org)
  • Mutational analyses indicated that nuclear localization of BORG was mediated through a novel RNA motif consisting of the pentamer sequence AGCCC with sequence restrictions at positions −8 (T or A) and −3 (G or C) relative to the first nucleotide of the pentamer. (asm.org)
  • Mutation of the motif to a scrambled sequence resulted in complete loss of nuclear localization, while addition of even a single copy of the motif to a cytoplasmically localized RNA was sufficient to impart nuclear localization. (asm.org)
  • Further, the presence of this motif in other cellular RNAs showed a direct correlation with nuclear localization, suggesting that the motif may act as a general nuclear localization signal for cellular RNAs. (asm.org)
  • Increasing evidence suggests that many lncRNAs are tissue specific and developmentally regulated and play important functional roles in diverse aspects of cellular function, with regulation of chromatin states and other nuclear events emerging as a major function of this class of transcripts ( 2 , 7 - 10 ). (asm.org)
  • It is now clear that these different classes of RNA, including rRNAs, tRNAs, mRNAs and snRNAs, are specifically directed into distinct but in some cases partially overlapping nuclear export pathways. (biologists.org)
  • All non-coding RNAs are now known to depend on members of the karyopherin family of Ran-dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport factors for their nuclear export. (biologists.org)
  • However, for all classes of RNA molecules, nuclear export is dependent on the assembly of the RNA into the appropriate ribonucleoprotein complex, and nuclear export therefore also appears to function as an important proofreading mechanism. (biologists.org)
  • Although I deal primarily with nuclear RNA export in metazoan cells, it is clear that these export pathways are highly conserved among eukaryotes and I will therefore also rely extensively on data obtained in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which has proven to be a powerful genetic system to identify critical components of several nuclear RNA export pathways. (biologists.org)
  • These results showed that functional P. sojae PY-NLSs include an additional cluster of basic residues for efficient nuclear import. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nuclear localization of Lsm8p is itself most strongly influenced by Lsm2p and Lsm4p, its presumed neighbours in the Lsm2-8p complex. (biologists.org)
  • genomic
  • Since the introduction of array-CGH analysis, the reported frequency of genomic imbalances associated with specific phenotypes has dramatically increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the 5′ NCR, an internal ribosome entry site is present to facilitate CAP-independent translation initiation of genomic RNA [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • colocalize
  • RNA live imaging demonstrated that target mRNAs colocalize with Rrm4 in ribonucleoprotein particles, so-called mRNPs, that shuttle along microtubules ( 18 ). (mcponline.org)
  • molecule
  • Many intergenic lncRNAs act in trans , and thus, by necessity, their function must be mediated by the RNA molecule itself rather than by the mere act of transcription, which seems to be the mode of function of many cis -acting RNAs ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • In many cases, the specific context and spatial orientation of the motif within the protein molecule enables a particular mode of interaction with other biological macromolecules, leading to function ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that gonad formation in Drosophila requires the homophilic cell-adhesion molecule Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin), and also Fear of Intimacy (FOI), which is required for stable accumulation of DE-cadherin protein in the gonad. (biologists.org)
  • lncRNAs
  • While it is possible that many lncRNAs act by increasing the local concentration of a certain protein through binding and "recruiting" it to a certain cellular domain ( 2 , 13 , 14 , 16 ), it is likely that, at least in some cases, the RNAs play a role beyond serving as a simple recruitment platform ( 9 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to be the largest transcript class in the mouse and human transcriptomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Several lncRNAs have been shown to function through their product, but this is not the only possible mode of action. (beds.ac.uk)
  • endogenous
  • Bar graphs represented ratios ± SEM of either endogenous mtDNA ND4 ( mtND4 ) or β-actin signals to COX10 - ND4 signal obtained with RNA purified from RGCs expressing either mutant (G11778A- ND4 ) or wild-type ND4 (WT- ND4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Since only the mutants, but not the endogenous wild-type FUS, are associated with stress granules under most of the stress conditions reported to date, the relationship between FUS and stress granules represents a mutant-specific phenotype and thus may be of significance in mutant-induced pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulation
  • We show here that c-Abl increases the cellular p73 abundance through a mode of posttranslational regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • How this redundancy is linked to in vivo function and how gene specific regulation is achieved, has not been clear. (sdbonline.org)
  • Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes, a majority of which act through the cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway and involve PKA phosphorylation of specific substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • membranes
  • Recently, the RNA synthesis of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV) was also shown to occur on modified intracellular membranes, which are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or intermediate compartment (IC) ( 60 , 79 ). (asm.org)
  • complexes
  • Whereas SMN has been shown to be an important component of diverse ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, its function in neurons is unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • The existence of these specific complexes (illustrated in Figure 1 ) governed by protein-protein interactions (PPIs) creates an opportunity for new therapeutic strategies to control cAMP dependent signaling that is out of tune or involved in pathologies. (frontiersin.org)
  • transcription
  • Re-annotation of the elav transcription unit shows that not only does it generate extended 3' UTR isoforms, its universal 3' UTR isoform is much longer than previously believed. (sdbonline.org)
  • During CoV replication and transcription, various complete and partially double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates, which are either active in transcription (termed transcriptive intermediates or forms) or active in replication (termed replicative intermediates or forms), are produced ( 28 , 31 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • transcripts
  • Here, de novo RNA-sequencing on the gonads of sexually mature G. affinis was used to identify contigs that were highly transcribed in females but not in males (i.e., transcripts with ovary-specific expression). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • analyses
  • Densitometric analyses were performed with signals revealed by electrophoresis (1/10 of the RT-PCR reaction) for three independent RNA extractions and two RT-PCRs per RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Our analyses show that a larger set of gene networks was co-opted during the development and evolution of the older gonopodium than in the younger, and morphologically less complex trait, the sword. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • small
  • Our results indicate that the sub-cellular distribution is important for miRNA function, and that the characterization of the small RNAs sub-cellular localizome may contribute to cancer research and diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, many long noncoding RNAs are processed to yield small RNAs or, conversely, modulate how other RNAs are processed. (kidney.de)
  • viruses
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) belongs to the Coronaviridae , which is a family of enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses that infect a wide variety of animals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vivo
  • Mean ± SEM for six control rats and animals euthanized 15, 25, 50, or 75 days after in vivo ELP are shown. (nih.gov)
  • We show that deletion of the F6 gene can lead to hypo-methyl esterification of tRNA at these bases in vivo. (asm.org)
  • This approach couples tissue- and location-specific expression of the enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX), which enables proximity-based protein labeling in vivo, and quantitative proteomics to identify tissue- and subcellular-restricted proteomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • unclear
  • Although it has been shown that c-Abl-mediated p73 activation in response to genotoxic stress is associated with an increase of p73 protein levels, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • structures
  • As shown by EM, CT1a localized to LAMP-1 positive late endosomes/lysosomes while POL accumulated predominantly in multilayered structures with the appearance of endocytic carrier vesicles. (asm.org)
  • expression
  • Expression of DE-cadherin from a ubiquitous ( tubulin ) promoter still results in gonad-specific accumulation of DE-cadherin, which is strongly reduced in foi mutants. (biologists.org)
  • We used this strategy to construct a comprehensive, antibody-based protein atlas for expression and localization profiles in 48 normal human tissues and 20 different cancers. (mcponline.org)
  • 10 ) showed that high throughput analysis of protein expression can be performed with a standard set of tissue microarrays representing both normal and cancer tissues. (mcponline.org)
  • Because of the fundamental importance of understanding protein localization, several experimental approaches have been established to globally define tissue- and compartment-specific protein expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • proteomics
  • To define the proteome of a live animal with tissue and subcellular resolution, we adapted a localized proteomics technology for use in the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans . (sciencemag.org)
  • substrates
  • This study shows that flies use neural substrates attributed to odor learning and memory , including the mushroom body (MB), for immediate sensory integration and modulation of innate behavior. (sdbonline.org)
  • infection
  • RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P. vulgaris root hairs. (frontiersin.org)
  • affinity
  • Conversely, ELAV, FNE, RBP9 and human HuR bind ELAV target RNA in vitro with similar affinity. (sdbonline.org)
  • 9 ) showed that this strategy could be further improved by a streamlined approach for affinity purification of the antibodies to generate monospecific antibodies (msAbs) 1 and the subsequent validation of the specificity of these antibodies by protein microarrays. (mcponline.org)
  • regulatory
  • By investigating transcriptomic changes (utilizing a RNA-Seq approach) in response to testosterone treatment in the swordtail fish, Xiphophorus hellerii, we aimed to better understand the architecture of the gene regulatory networks underpinning the development of these two evolutionary novelties. (uni-wuerzburg.de)