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  • Protein
  • The amino acid sequence is the same as for androgen-binding protein but that has different oligosaccharides attached and is produced in testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the whole protein signals what hormone it carries on its own surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible pathway is that once inside the cell these complexes are taken to the lysosome, where the carrier protein is degraded and the steroid hormone is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Androgenic effects include maturation of the sex organs, particularly the penis and the formation of the scrotum in the fetus, and after birth (usually at puberty) a deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair (such as the beard) and axillary (underarm) hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher levels of these hormones enable spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and sperm maturation in the epididymis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Steroid hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • These hormones, which are all derived from cholesterol, have hydrophilic functional groups at either end and hydrophobic carbon backbones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When steroid hormones are entering membranes free energy barriers exist when the functional groups are entering the hydrophobic interior of membrane, but it is energetically favorable for the hydrophobic core of these hormones to enter lipid bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • This period affects the femininization or masculinization of the fetus and can be a better predictor of feminine or masculine behaviours such as sex typed behaviour than an adult's own levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • One study has found that these steroid-carrier complexes are bound by megalin, a membrane receptor, and are then taken into cells via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • free
  • This idea is known as the free hormone hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between cholesterol and these hormones is that cholesterol is in a much larger negative Gibb's free energy well once inside the membrane, as compared to these hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Depending upon the type of receptor, they are either located in the cytosol and move to the cell nucleus upon activation, or remain in the nucleus waiting for the steroid hormone to enter and activate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body
  • In addition, a large body of observational and experimental data has implicated the important roles of sex hormones in the development of type 2 diabetes ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • affinity
  • The activity of bicalutamide lies in the (R)-isomer, which binds to the AR with an affinity that is about 30-fold higher than that of the (S)-isomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to one in vitro study, the relative binding affinity of estrone for the human ERα and ERβ was 4% and 3.5% of that estradiol, respectively, and the relative transactivational capacity of estrone at the ERα and ERβ was 2.6% and 4.3% of that of estradiol, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its affinity for the androgen receptor, DHEA has also been found to bind to and activate the ERα and ERβ estrogen receptors with Ki values of 1.1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively, and EC50 values of >1 μM and 200 nM, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, the surprising discovery was made that DHEA, as well as DHEA-S, directly bind to and activate the TrkA and p75NTR, receptors of neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHEA was subsequently also found to bind to the TrkB and TrkC with high affinity, though it notably activated the TrkC but not the TrkB. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This binding protein can be found in the circulation where it regulates hormone access to target tissues. (rndsystems.com)
  • One possible pathway is that once inside the cell these complexes are taken to the lysosome, where the carrier protein is degraded and the steroid hormone is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormonal signaling involves the following steps: Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue Storage and secretion of the hormone Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s) Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the observation of the crystal structure of neuroligin-1, it was determined that neuroligin-1 forms a protein dimer when two neurexin-1 beta monomers bind to the neuroligin-1's two opposite surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • estradiol
  • Estradiol cyclooctyl acetate (E2CoA), or estradiol 17β-cyclooctylacetate, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 17β-cyclooctylacetate, is a synthetic, steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester - specifically, the 17β-cyclooctylacetate ester of estradiol - which has been studied for use in hormone replacement therapy for ovariectomized women and as a hormonal contraceptive in combination with a progestin but was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is approximately twice as potent as micronized estradiol orally and has a comparatively reduced impact on liver parameters such as changes in sex hormone-binding globulin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • Mice with homozygous disruptions in the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (see below) die at birth due to pulmonary immaturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Steroid hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics, and the ability to withstand illness and injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormonal
  • The data indicate that E4 may be suitable for use in several indications including hormonal contraception, menopausal hormone therapy (both hot flashes and vaginal atrophy), breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The endocrine system secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream typically into fenestrated capillaries, whereas the exocrine system secretes its hormones indirectly using ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Estetrol is being developed as estrogenic component in the oral contraceptive pill (as estetrol/drospirenone) and for hormone replacement therapy by Mithra Pharmaceuticals (Belgium). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone Therapy in Breast and Prostate Cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The interaction of neuroligin and neurexin to form a heterotetramer is monitored by alternatively spliced sites located near the binding interface for Ca2+ in both the neuroligin-1 and the neurexin-1 beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • affect
  • The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling). (wikipedia.org)
  • High
  • As such, AR signaling is exceptionally high in the prostate gland, and the effectiveness of bicalutamide monotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer, which is roughly equivalent to that of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, demonstrates a capacity of bicalutamide to strongly antagonize the AR. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • In women, side effects also include acne, changes in menstrual periods, voice deepening, hair growth on the chin or chest, pattern hair loss, enlarged clitoris, and changes in sex drive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Other predictors of the required dosage are sex, BMI, deiodinase activity (SPINA-GD) and etiology of hypothyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name
  • The name "glucocorticoid" derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)