• A basic knowledge of human biology, growth and development, and the aging process is needed to identify gradual changes that occur in the skeleton from birth to old age. (slideserve.com)
  • Accurate identification of the biological sex of ancient remains is vital for critically testing hypotheses about social structure in prehistoric societies. (blogspot.com)
  • Lizzy Craig-Atkins and Pia Nystrom's collaborative work on the refinement of methods for assigning biological sex to immatures was presented at the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology conference, Canterbury in September 2016 and the Skeletons, Stories and Social Bodies Conference, Southampton in April 2017 by co-author Chris Aris, University of Sheffield MSc Human Osteology and Funerary Archaeology graduate and currently PhD student at the University of Kent. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The assignment of biological sex to archaeological human skeletons is a fundamental requirement for the reconstruction of the human past. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, sex determination of juvenile remains is rarely undertaken, and a dependable and expedient method that can correctly assign biological sex to human remains of any age is highly desirable. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Our method can reliably determine the biological sex of humans of any age using a body tissue that is difficult to cross-contaminate and is most likely to survive. (dur.ac.uk)
  • However, morphological methods are imprecise for juvenile individuals and fragmentary remains, and molecular methods that rely on particular sex-specific marker loci such as the amelogenin gene suffer from allelic dropout and sensitivity to modern contamination. (blogspot.com)
  • Sex estimation based on the morphological characteristics of skeletal elements is population specific and thus the establishment of regional criteria is one of the imperatives for modern forensic anthropology. (scielo.org.za)
  • A literature review was carried out wherein the available methods of sex identification (morphological, metrical, geometric morphometrics and molecular) from South African skeletal material were critically examined. (scielo.org.za)
  • Furthermore, for infants and juveniles, there are no reliable morphological methods for sex determination without resorting to DNA analysis, which requires good DNA survival and is time-consuming. (dur.ac.uk)
  • In bioarchaeology, osteometry is very useful to solve many anthropological problems about past human populations, for example, it may be used to determine kinship, sex, the degree of sex dimorphism (which may be used to answer questions related to lack of nutrition) and even ethnicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our study, we have tried to evaluate some of the tested metrical parameters in sexing the skulls of western Indian origin. (indmedica.com)
  • This study was conducted on 85 adult skulls of known sex (43 male and 42 female). (indmedica.com)
  • The limiting points used to sex the skulls were 122 mm for bizygomatic diameter, 31 mm2 for combined area of foramen ovale and 47.5 mm2 for combined area of carotid canal. (indmedica.com)
  • The combination of bizygomatic diameter and combined area of carotid canal was found to be best in determining the sex of skulls with 100 % accuracy. (indmedica.com)
  • Alternatively stated, for each parameter, if measurements conducted on the skulls of known sex were in the range of a (minimum) to b (maximum) for male skulls, then any skull of unknown sex with value of the given parameter less than 'a' was considered as female and thus 'a' was regarded as the identification point (IP) of female skulls. (indmedica.com)
  • Similarly, if for the female skulls of known sex, the measurements ranged between 'c' (minimum) to 'd' (maximum) then any skull of unknown sex showing the measurement of parameter greater than 'd' was regarded as male skull. (indmedica.com)
  • Here we present a method for sex determination of human remains by means of a minimally destructive surface acid etching of tooth enamel and subsequent identification of sex chromosome-linked isoforms of amelogenin, an enamel-forming protein, by nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Holger's publications are wide-ranging and extensive, focusing on aspects of assigning age and sex estimates to use of complex isotopic or histological methods of enquiry. (babao.org.uk)
  • In addition, the quest for new, reliable and effective metrical parameters led us to evaluate the efficacy of areas of 'foramen ovale' and the 'carotid canal opening' on the base of the skull in determining the sex. (indmedica.com)
  • There are additional complications mentioned in the paper (such as not all humans having a simple XX or XY pair, or contamination by males/females messing up with the ratio of ancient samples of the opposite sex). (blogspot.com)
  • These, he argued, led to an explosion in the number and quality of publications in the form of books and scientific papers, on subjects relating to the identification of people from human skeletons. (scielo.org.za)
  • The purpose of the current study was to characterize, what, if any, impairments in face-labeling are detectable in participants with early-stage clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer type (CDDAT) through the use of the sex determination test (SDT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Statistical analysis showed significance between sexes for all the parameters. (indmedica.com)
  • Sexing of the skull is predominantly done using nonmetrical parameters, which are at best appropriate only in relative terms. (indmedica.com)
  • A new article demonstrates that it's possible to assign the sex of individuals by considering the ratio of sequences aligning to chromosomes X and Y. This seems quite useful, since often ancient DNA is extracted from isolated finds where there isn't enough of the skeleton to make a sex determination morphologically. (blogspot.com)
  • Distal breadth, minimum midshaft diameter and maximum head diameter were the best discriminators of sex in the radius, while minimum midshaft diameter and olecranon breadth were selected for the ulna. (up.ac.za)
  • A basic knowledge of human biology, growth and development, and the aging process is needed to identify gradual changes that occur in the skeleton from birth to old age. (slideserve.com)
  • In a catalogue like this only to be accessible to the scientific community it should be waste of space and time to try to defend the legitimacy of a bird-skin, skeleton and feather collection. (birdresearch.dk)
  • It also includes discussions of determination of time since death (or postmortem interval), manner of death, as well as differentiating antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem trauma. (radford.edu)